Do not give rotavirus vaccine to an infant who has a history of a severe allergic reaction (for example, anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of rotavirus vaccine or to a vaccine component. The oral applicator for Rotarix contains natural latex rubber so infants with a severe (anaphylactic) allergy to latex should not be given Rotarix; the RotaTeq (Merck) dosing tube is latex-free. Rotavirus vaccine is contraindicated in infants with the rare disorder severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and in infants with a history of intussusception.
Practitioners should consider the potential risks and benefits of administering rotavirus vaccine to infants with known or suspected altered immunocompetence, including those whose mothers received immunosuppressive biologics (such as infliximab) during pregnancy. Consultation with an immunologist or infectious diseases specialist is advised.
Children and adults who are immunocompromised because of congenital immunodeficiency, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or solid organ transplantation sometimes experience severe or prolonged rotavirus gastroenteritis. However, few safety or efficacy data are available for the administration of rotavirus vaccine to infants who are immunocompromised or potentially immunocompromised, including 1) infants with primary and acquired immunodeficiency, cellular immunodeficiency, and hypogammaglobulinemia and dysgammaglobulinemia; 2) infants with blood dyscrasias, leukemia, lymphomas, or other malignant neoplasms affecting the bone marrow or lymphatic system; 3) infants on immunosuppressive therapy (including high-dose systemic corticosteroids); and 4) infants who are HIV-exposed or infected.