Issue Number 592 April 12, 2006
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE
(1 of 1)
Mumps is an acute viral infection characterized by a nonspecific prodrome, including myalgia, anorexia, malaise, headache, and fever, followed by acute onset of unilateral or bilateral tender swelling of parotid or other salivary glands. An estimated 60%-70% of mumps infections produce typical acute parotitis. Approximately 20% of infections are asymptomatic, and nearly 50% are associated with nonspecific or primarily respiratory symptoms. Complications include orchitis, oophoritis, or mastitis (inflammation of the testicles, ovaries, or breasts, respectively), meningitis/encephalitis, spontaneous abortion, and deafness. Transmission occurs by direct contact with respiratory droplets or saliva. The incubation period is 14-18 days (range: 14-25 days) from exposure to onset of symptoms. The infectious period is from 3 days before symptom onset until 9 days after onset of symptoms.
IDPH has identified two persons who had mumps diagnosed and were potentially infectious during travel on nine different commercial flights involving two airlines during March 26-April 2, 2006. The commercial airline flights identified with a potentially infectious traveler are listed below by date, carrier, and flight number:
NORTHWEST AIRLINE (NWA) FLIGHTS:
A multistate investigation has been initiated by CDC and the state health departments in affected states to notify potentially exposed passengers (i.e., those seated in close proximity to the index cases). This investigation is using a new software application, eManifest, developed by the CDC Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) to securely import, sort, and assign passenger- locating information to jurisdictions to facilitate timely identification of exposed persons. These data are securely transmitted to state and territorial health departments via the Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) Forum (available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/epix/epix.html ) for notification of potentially exposed passengers.
Incidence of mumps in the United States began to decrease after
vaccine introduction in 1967 and recommendations for routine
vaccination of children in 1977. Since the 1990s, a further decrease
in the reported incidence of mumps has occurred, which is thought
to be attributable to the implementation of the second dose of
measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. The risk for transmission of
respiratory infectious diseases during air travel might depend on
several factors, including (1) immunity of passengers;
(2) infectiousness of the organism; (3) degree of shedding of the
pathogen by infected passengers; (4) hygienic practices of infectious
passengers; (5) proximity of others to infectious passengers;
(6) hygienic practices of the other passengers/crew; (7) flight
duration; and (8) cabin environment of the aircraft. Transmission of
other respiratory pathogens during air travel has been reported.
Exposure and transmission of mumps during commercial air travel
has not been described previously.
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Editor-in-ChiefKelly L. Moore, MD, MPH
Managing EditorJohn D. Grabenstein, RPh, PhD
Associate EditorSharon G. Humiston, MD, MPH
Writer/Publication CoordinatorTaryn Chapman, MS
Courtnay Londo, MA
Style and Copy EditorMarian Deegan, JD
Web Edition ManagersArkady Shakhnovich
Contributing WriterLaurel H. Wood, MPA
Technical ReviewerKayla Ohlde