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Issue Number 319            June 17, 2002


  1. CDC publishes recap of 2001-2002 influenza season and announces next season's flu vaccine composition
  2. Updated! Patient chart on adult vaccinations
  3. Recommended reading: "Hepatitis B: The Hunt for a Killer Virus"
  4. British Medical Journal article reviews new types of vaccines and vaccine delivery methods
  5. Reminder: "The Immunization Encounter" live satellite broadcast takes place Thursday, June 27
  6. Two-day course from CDC in August: "Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases"


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June 17, 2002

On June 14, 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published "Update: Influenza Activity--United States and Worldwide, 2001-02 Season, and Composition of the 2002-03 Influenza Vaccine," in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

According to the article, in the United States influenza activity increased in mid-January and peaked in February: "Influenza A viruses predominated, but the number of influenza B viruses increased as the season progressed. Influenza B viruses were the most frequently identified influenza viruses from the  week ending March 30 (week 13) through the week ending May 18 (week 20)." Worldwide influenza activity is also presented in the article.

The influenza vaccine for the 2002-2003 season will be trivalent, containing two of the same influenza A viruses that were in last season's vaccine (A/Moscow/10/99-like [H3N2] and A/New Caledonia/20/99 [H1N1]) and an updated influenza B virus, according to the article. The editorial note states: "Until March 2001, viruses of the B/Victoria lineage had not been identified outside of Asia since 1991. Since March 2001, B/Victoria lineage viruses have been identified in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The 2002-03 influenza vaccine will contain a virus from the B/Victoria lineage."

The editorial note also summarizes the 2002-03 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for the Prevention and Control of Influenza as follows, excluding a footnote (for details on these recommendations, see IAC EXPRESS #306 at


The 2002-03 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for the Prevention and Control of Influenza contain important changes concerning the timing of vaccination and target groups for vaccination. The optimal time to receive influenza vaccine is during October- November. However, because of vaccine distribution delays during the previous 2 years and uncertainty  about vaccine supply in future seasons, ACIP recommends that vaccination efforts during October  focus on persons at greatest risk for influenza-related complications (e.g., persons aged 65 years and older and persons aged 6 months-64 years with certain medical conditions), household contacts of these high-risk persons, children aged 6 months to <9 years receiving vaccine for the first time, and health-care workers, and that vaccination of other groups begin in November. Vaccination efforts for all groups should continue into December and later, for as long as vaccine is available. Because young,  healthy children are at increased risk for influenza-related hospitalization, vaccination of healthy children aged 6-23 months and close contacts of children aged 0-23 months is encouraged when feasible and should begin during October. Vaccination of children aged 6 months and older who have certain high-risk medical conditions continues to be recommended strongly.


To obtain the complete text of the article online, go to:

To obtain a camera-ready (PDF format) copy of this issue of MMWR, go to:

To obtain a free electronic subscription to the "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" (MMWR), visit CDC's MMWR website at: Select "Free MMWR Subscription" from the menu at the left of the screen. Once you have submitted the required information, weekly issues of the MMWR and all new ACIP statements (published as MMWR's "Recommendations and Reports") will arrive automatically by email.

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June 17, 2002

The Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) has updated its patient chart "Vaccinations for Adults: You're Never Too Old to Get Shots!" This easy-to-follow, one-page chart uses syringe icons to show how many doses of each vaccine are needed.

Lyme disease vaccine has been removed from the chart since it is no longer on the market.

An updated Spanish version of the chart will be available soon.

To obtain a copy of the updated "Vaccinations for Adults: You're Never Too Old to Get Shots!", go to:

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June 17, 2002

Baruch S. Blumberg won the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his role in discovering the  hepatitis B virus and the vaccine that prevents it. In "Hepatitis B: The Hunt for a Killer Vaccine," a new 231-page book published by Princeton University Press, Dr. Blumberg tells the fascinating story of decades of scientific detective work--both in the lab and in the field.

The book is engagingly written for a wide audience, yet it spares no technical, medical content. Clear headings such as "How We Arrived at the Hypothesis That Australia Antigen Was Part of a Hepatitis Virus" and "Solving One Problem Creates Others" help the reader to keep up with the author's thinking  process, and photographs from Africa, South America, and Alaska help to bring field-trial tales to life. Concluding chapters cover the current state of knowledge and research on hepatitis B virus.

The cost of the hardcover book is $27.95.

To order the book directly from the publisher, go to:

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June 17, 2002

On June 1, 2002, the British Medical Journal published "Science, Medicine, and the Future: New Vaccine Development" (vol. 324, no. 7349). Written by Gregory A. Poland, Dennis Murray, and Ruben Bonilla-Guerrero, the article discusses new vaccines for both infectious and non-infectious diseases (e.g., cancer) and describes topical, edible, and controlled-release delivery systems. Included are a figure that shows how DNA vaccination works and a table of potential vaccines for this century.

According to the introduction, the future of vaccines is not at all distant: "In the next five to 15 years, new vaccines and new vaccine delivery technology will fundamentally change how clinicians prevent and treat disease, with a substantial impact on public health."

The Conclusions paragraph reads in part as follows, excluding footnotes:


The future of vaccinology provides tremendous promise for controlling diseases. Vaccines will be delivered orally, by nasal spray, or transcutaneously by a minimally trained layperson and in a manner that does not require expensive equipment. However, despite rapid advances in the development of new vaccines, concerns about vaccine safety and a rise in anti-vaccine sentiment adversely affect immunisation coverage, the willingness of manufacturers to develop new vaccines, and the willingness of individuals and healthcare workers to use them. As advanced vaccines and vaccine technologies  become available massive public education efforts will be required to alleviate these concerns. . . . [P]erson-specific vaccines based on individual genotyping (vaccines against a specific malignancy in a specific individual) will also raise serious concerns. None the less, the prospect of both preventing and treating many serious diseases by the use of vaccines portends an exciting era in public health and vaccinology.


To obtain a camera-ready (PDF format) copy of "Science, Medicine, and the Future: New Vaccine Development," go to:

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June 17, 2002

On Thursday, June 27, 12:00 noon-2:30 p.m. Eastern Time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will present a live satellite and web broadcast, "The Immunization Encounter: Critical Issues."

Program faculty are William L. Atkinson, M.D., M.P.H.; Judy V. Schmidt, R.N.C., Ed.D.; and Donna L. Weaver, M.N., R.N; all from the National Immunization Program at CDC. The broadcast program will address best practices at each phase of the vaccination encounter, including intake and screening, vaccine administration, and documentation. For program details, registration, continuing education credit information, and satellite specifications, go to:

You may also obtain further information about registration by calling (800) 418-7246 (800-41-TRAIN).

If you are unable to watch the live broadcast and would like to order a videotape, go to the Public Health Training Network website at:

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June 17, 2002

A live, two-day course on vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) will be held in Minneapolis on August 28 and 29 at the downtown Minneapolis Marriott Hotel. "Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases" covers the latest information for providers on schedules, contraindications, standard immunization practices, and vaccine management and safety.

The course is based on the book by the same name, also known as "The Pink Book" (for more on new edition of "The Pink Book," see IAC EXPRESS #315 at Attending this course is a great way to learn about what's new in "The Pink Book"--and in the world of VPDs--in a short period of time.

Featured speakers at "Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases" are CDC experts William L. Atkinson, M.D., M.P.H.; Donna L. Weaver, M.N., R.N.; Judy V. Schmidt, Ed.D., R.N.C.; and IAC Executive Director Deborah L. Wexler, M.D.

The registration fee for the course is $69.

To print a course brochure, go to:

To register for the course online, go to:

If you have questions, contact Judy Schmidt at or Patti Storti at

This course will be offered in California in the fall. For more information on the California course, go to:

About IZ Express

IZ Express is supported in part by Grant No. 1NH23IP922654 from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Its contents are solely the responsibility of and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.

IZ Express Disclaimer
ISSN 2771-8085

Editorial Information

  • Editor-in-Chief
    Kelly L. Moore, MD, MPH
  • Managing Editor
    John D. Grabenstein, RPh, PhD
  • Associate Editor
    Sharon G. Humiston, MD, MPH
  • Writer/Publication Coordinator
    Taryn Chapman, MS
    Courtnay Londo, MA
  • Style and Copy Editor
    Marian Deegan, JD
  • Web Edition Managers
    Arkady Shakhnovich
    Jermaine Royes
  • Contributing Writer
    Laurel H. Wood, MPA
  • Technical Reviewer
    Kayla Ohlde

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