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Issue Number 293            January 28, 2002


  1. If parents ask: Article summarizes research on safety of multiple vaccines for infants
  2. CDC evaluates immunization registry use
  3. New "PKIDs' Pediatric Hepatitis Report" combines text and testimonial
  4. CDC seeks deputy director for National Immunization Program
  5. Revised Spanish translations! Infant, children/teen charts reflect changes
  6. Pharmacy Vaccination State Mandates web page updated
  7. Newest VAERS bibliography on vaccine safety is online
  8. CDC publishes article on increase in Lyme disease reports
  9. Fifth Annual Conference on Vaccine Research happens in May


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January 28, 2002

Parents of infants and young children have no reason to fear "too many vaccines," confirms an article in the January issue of Pediatrics. With references to a total of 63 studies, the short article provides a veritable crash course in the infant and child immune response in general and to vaccine antigens in particular.

"Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant's Immune System?" was written by Paul A. Offit, M.D., Section of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Jessica Quarles, Division of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Michael A. Gerber, M.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; and five other authors. In just three pages, the article answers the most common  questions about possible lowered immune response following multiple vaccines. It also provides evidence suggesting that, amazingly, infants "have the theoretical capacity to respond to about 10,000 vaccines at any one time." Finally, it explains for skeptical parents that while "we now give children more vaccines, the actual number of antigens they receive has declined" in recent decades.

The Summary reads as follows:


Current studies do not support the hypothesis that multiple vaccines overwhelm, weaken, or "use up" the immune system. On the contrary, young infants have an enormous capacity to respond to multiple  vaccines, as well as to the many other challenges present in the environment. By providing protection against a number of bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines prevent the "weakening" of the immune system and consequent secondary bacterial infections occasionally caused by natural infection.


To view the Abstract of this article online, go to:

To view the full text of this article online, go to:

To obtain a camera-ready (PDF format) copy of the article, go to:

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January 28, 2002

On January 25, 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published "Immunization Registry Use and Progress--United States, 2001" in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

CDC analyzed data from the "2000 Immunization Registry Annual Report" and found that 32 of 51 grantees reported operating registries in 2000, and all 51 "were working to meet key elements of the 13 functional standards established for immunization registries."

The introductory paragraph states, "Registries are key tools used to increase and sustain high vaccination coverage by providing complete and accurate information on which to base vaccination decisions. Registries consolidate vaccination records of children from multiple healthcare providers, identify children who are due or late for vaccinations, generate reminder and recall notices to ensure that children are appropriately vaccinated, and identify provider sites and geographic areas with low vaccination coverage."

To obtain the complete text of the article online, go to:

To obtain a camera-ready (PDF format) copy of this issue of MMWR, go to:

To obtain a free electronic subscription to the "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" (MMWR), visit CDC's MMWR website at: Select "Free MMWR Subscription" from the menu at the left of the screen. Once you have submitted the required information, weekly issues of the MMWR and all new ACIP statements (published as MMWR's "Recommendations and Reports") will arrive automatically by email.

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January 28, 2002

If you have or work with children who have chronic viral hepatitis, a new 530-page report from Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) will help you understand hepatitis A-E, from transmission to diagnosis to treatment to civil rights protections and more. Parents' personal statements and sections on how to talk to children about their condition add perspective to the technical content.

Critical issues for parents covered in this report include how to choose a doctor for your child, treatment options, how to disclose the illness to your child, and how to find or start a support group.

As Dr. Philip Rosenthal, Professor of Pediatrics and Surgery and Medical Director, Pediatric Liver Transplant Program, and Director of Pediatric Hepatology, University of California at San Francisco, states in his introductory letter to the volume, "A diagnosis of chronic liver disease from viral hepatitis in a child can be devastating to a parent. After the initial shock, parents have a multitude of questions." Until this report came out, there was, as Dr. Rosenthal puts it, "very little information available in one reference to aid families dealing with this diagnosis."

Dr. Deborah Wexler, IAC's Executive Director, calls the report "essential for parents who have children with chronic viral hepatitis."

To access the "PKIDs' Pediatric Hepatitis Report" online, go to:

The above page contains a table of contents with direct links to individual chapters and sections. For a camera-ready (PDF format) copy of the Introduction, go to:

To order a hard copy of the entire report in a 3-ring binder ($45.00 per copy), contact PKIDs by email at or fax at (360) 695-6941, or mail your check, money order, or credit card number to:

P.O. Box 5666
Vancouver, WA 98668

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January 28, 2002

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is hiring a new Deputy Director for the National Immunization Program (NIP) based in Atlanta, Georgia. According to the vacancy announcement, "The Deputy assumes full authority for the operation of the program and is authorized  to make all decisions and commitments in the absence of the Director. NIP provides national leadership to reduce disability and death resulting from diseases that can be prevented through immunization. The Program relies on the expertise and personal dedication of its 450 permanent employees and 72 contractors, interns, fellows, guest researchers, and consultants working throughout the world in a broad range of scientific, technical, and administrative fields. NIP has one of the largest program budgets within CDC with an appropriation of more than $1.5 billion in fiscal year 2001. The scope of the programs implemented by NIP are global in nature."

To see the complete announcement on CDC's website, go to:

For more information about the position, prospective applicants may contact either Kimberly S. Lane, Acting Associate Director for Management and Operations, NIP, by phone at (404) 639-8918 or email at or James S. Marks, M.D., M.P.H., Director, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, and Chair, Search Committee, by phone at (770) 488-5401 or email at

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January 28, 2002

Two of IAC's most-used publications were revised earlier this month. Now we have posted the revised Spanish translations on our website.

"When Do Children and Teens Need Vaccinations?" is a chart that shows the seven major childhood vaccines and the age(s) at which to give each dose of them. This is as simple and clear as it gets.

To obtain "When Do Children and Teens Need Vaccinations?" in Spanish, go to:

For the English version of "When Do Children and Teens Need Vaccinations?" go to:

"Immunizations for Babies" does the same thing for infant vaccinations, showing parents which vaccines to give babies at birth, 1-2 months, and so on up to 15 months of age.

To obtain "Immunizations for Babies" in Spanish, go to:

For the English version of "Immunization for Babies," go to:

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January 28, 2002

This page on IAC's website answers one simple but important question about each state in the U.S.: "Are pharmacists explicitly authorized to vaccinate?" IAC updates this page several times per year.

To see IAC's Pharmacy Vaccination Mandates web page, go to:

If you know of any new or changed state mandates for pharmacy vaccination or other immunization issues, please let us know. Although we monitor immunization laws and regulations across the nation, we also rely on readers and IAC members to keep us informed. Contact us by email at

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January 28, 2002

The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), jointly sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), periodically posts on its website a list of articles related to vaccine safety culled from the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database. VAERS offers this "Vaccine Safety Bibliography" as a public service.

The newest list, dated January 2002, has just been made available. It contains 29 article citations.

The bibliography can be viewed as an HTML or a PDF document. Citations directly link to abstracts and/or full texts of articles through the PubMed site.

For the January 2002 VAERS "Vaccine Safety Bibliography," go to:

For 2001 bibliographies, go to:

To learn more about VAERS, go to:

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January 28, 2002

On January 18, 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published "Lyme Disease--United States, 2000" in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

The first paragraph reads as follows:


Lyme disease (LD) is caused by the tickborne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and is the  most common vectorborne disease in the United States. CDC initiated LD surveillance in 1982, and the  Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists designated it a nationally notifiable disease in 1991. This report summarizes the 17,730 cases of LD reported to CDC during 2000, which indicates that more LD cases were reported in 2000 than in any previous reporting year and that the reported incidence of LD is greatest in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north-central regions of the United States. LD can be prevented by reducing tick populations, avoiding tick-infested habitats, using repellents, promptly removing attached ticks, and vaccination.


To obtain the complete text of this article, go to:

To obtain a camera-ready (PDF format) copy of this issue of MMWR, go to:

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January 28, 2002

The Fifth Annual Conference on Vaccine Research will be held May 6-8, 2002, at the Wyndham Baltimore Inner Harbor Hotel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The conference will be "a multidisciplinary scientific forum addressing a broad array of cutting-edge issues in vaccine research" with seminars and panels on "basic immunology, vaccine development, clinical testing, and vaccine regulation."

This conference is sponsored by the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Continuing Medical Education (CME) credit is available.

The early bird conference registration fee is $350 (through March 22) and $400 thereafter. For more information or for a conference brochure, contact Lisa Gaylord or Kathleen Hanrahan by phone at (301) 656-0003 (ext. 19) or email at

To learn more about the conference online, go to:

To register for the conference online, go to:

Hotel reservations should be made by April 12 to get the single-occupancy conference rate of $159 (plus tax) per night. Call the Wyndham Baltimore Inner Harbor Hotel at (800) 996-3426 or (410) 385-6700.

About IZ Express

IZ Express is supported in part by Grant No. 1NH23IP922654 from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Its contents are solely the responsibility of and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.

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Editorial Information

  • Editor-in-Chief
    Kelly L. Moore, MD, MPH
  • Managing Editor
    John D. Grabenstein, RPh, PhD
  • Associate Editor
    Sharon G. Humiston, MD, MPH
  • Writer/Publication Coordinator
    Taryn Chapman, MS
    Courtnay Londo, MA
  • Style and Copy Editor
    Marian Deegan, JD
  • Web Edition Managers
    Arkady Shakhnovich
    Jermaine Royes
  • Contributing Writer
    Laurel H. Wood, MPA
  • Technical Reviewer
    Kayla Ohlde

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