IZ Express

Issue 1750: April 3, 2024

Top Stories
Immunize.org Website and Clinical Resources 
Featured Resources
Notable Publications

Top Stories

CDC's Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory: increasing cases of invasive serogroup Y meningococcal disease in the United States

On March 28, CDC issued a Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory: Increase in Invasive Serogroup Y Meningococcal Disease in the United States. The summary section appears below. 

In 2023, 422 cases were reported in the United States, the highest annual number of cases reported since 2014. As of March 25, 2024, 143 cases have been reported to CDC for the current calendar year, an increase of 62 cases over the 81 reported as of this date in 2023. A specific meningococcal strain, sequence type (ST) 1466, is responsible for most (101 of 148, 68%) serogroup Y cases with available sequence type data that were reported across the United States in 2023. Cases caused by this strain are disproportionately occurring in people ages 30–60 years (65%), Black or African American people (63%), and people with HIV (15%). In addition, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease caused by ST-1466 in 2023 had a clinical presentation other than meningitis: 64% presented with bacteremia, and at least 4% presented with septic arthritis. Of 94 patients with known outcomes, 17 (18%) died; this case-fatality rate is higher than the historical case-fatality rate of 11% reported for serogroup Y cases in 2017–2021. Healthcare providers should 1) have a heightened suspicion for meningococcal disease, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by the current increase, 2) be aware that patients may present without symptoms typical of meningitis, and 3) ensure that all people recommended for meningococcal vaccination, including people with HIV, are up to date for meningococcal vaccines.

Access the complete CDC HAN Health Advisory.

Reminder: CDC recommends suspending seasonal administration of nirsevimab (Beyfortus) for RSV immunization of infants and toddlers at the end of March in most jurisdictions

The 2023 ACIP recommendation for administration of nirsevimab (Beyfortus, Sanofi) long-acting monoclonal antibody product for prevention of RSV disease in infants and toddlers specifies administering nirsevimab seasonally, beginning October 1 and ending March 31 in jurisdictions with RSV seasonality typical of the contiguous United States. Facilities in most of the United States should suspend nirsevimab use at this time and prepare to resume administration in October 2024.

Alaska and tropical climates may have RSV circulation patterns that differ from most of the continental United States. Locations with tropical climates include southern Florida, Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, and U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. Providers in these jurisdictions should follow state, local, or territorial guidance on timing of nirsevimab administration.

Related Links

Review Immunize.org’s “Checklist of Current Versions of U.S. COVID-19 Vaccination Guidance and Clinic Support Tools”; updated CDC standing order templates for all COVID-19 vaccines now available

Immunize.org's Checklist of Current Versions of U.S. COVID-19 Vaccination Guidance and Clinic Support Tools has been revised to include links to CDC’s updated clinical resources incorporating the new recommendation for an additional dose of any 2023–2024 Formula COVID-19 vaccine for people age 65 years and older. The updated materials are:

  •  Standing Orders for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccines for People Age 5 Years and Older and Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine for People Age 12 Years and Older
  • Interim 2023–2024 COVID-19 Immunization Schedule for Persons 6 Months of Age and Older
  • “At-A-Glance” Summaries for Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Novavax COVID-19 Vaccines 

In addition, the checklist provides a link to Immunize.org's updated Ask the Experts: COVID-19 main page. 

All COVID-19 vaccine providers should review this checklist regularly. Download the latest documents and discard any outdated versions. The checklist is posted on Immunize.org's Vaccines A–Z: COVID-19 main page to help practices stay up to date.

Related Links

Report on interim effectiveness of 2023–2024 COVID-19 vaccines against hospitalizations in adults, published in MMWR

CDC published Interim Effectiveness of Updated 2023–2024 (Monovalent XBB.1.5) COVID-19 Vaccines against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization among Adults Aged ≥18 Years with Immunocompromising Conditions—VISION Network, September 2023–February 2024 on March 28 in MMWR. The abstract appears below. 

In this analysis, vaccine effectiveness (VE) of an updated COVID-19 vaccine dose against COVID-19–associated hospitalization was evaluated during September 2023–February 2024 using data from the VISION VE network. Among adults aged ≥18 years with immunocompromising conditions, VE against COVID-19–associated hospitalization was 38% in the 7–59 days after receipt of an updated vaccine dose and 34% in the 60–119 days after receipt of an updated dose. Few persons (18%) in this high-risk study population had received updated COVID-19 vaccine. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 vaccination; persons with immunocompromising conditions may get additional updated COVID-19 vaccine doses ≥2 months after the last recommended COVID-19 vaccine.

Access the MMWR article in HTML or PDF.

Related Link

  • CDC: MMWR main page providing access to the MMWR family of publications

National Infant Immunization Week is April 22–29; prepare your promotion activities with CDC’s digital media toolkit 

National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW), April 22–29, highlights the importance of protecting infants from vaccine-preventable diseases and celebrates the achievements of immunization partners. Since 1994, hundreds of communities have joined together during NIIW to celebrate the crucial role vaccination plays in protecting our children, communities, and public health.

CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that children stay on track with their well-child appointments and routine vaccinations. Completing the recommended vaccinations by age 2 years is the best way to protect young children from 15 potentially life-threatening diseases. In light of the challenges of the pandemic years, these messages are more important than ever for families to hear.

CDC makes it simple to plan your NIIW activities by using their promotional materials including English and Spanish logos, sample social media content, social graphics, and key messages. Please share your posts using the hashtag #ivax2protect.

Related Links

Vaccinate Your Family launches its redesigned and updated website

Vaccinate Your Family (VYF), a leading national nonprofit organization focused on helping people get vaccinated, launched comprehensive updates to its website, VaccinateYourFamily.org. This Vaccine Safety Net (VSN)-certified site guides more than a quarter million visitors each year to science-based information. Visit the site to see the new homepage, a rebuilt Vaccine FAQ section (including popular videos), the Latest News main page, and downloadable resources.  

Explore the updated VaccinateYourFamily.org for more. 
The Invisible Shield, a four-part documentary now airing on many public television stations and the PBS app, shows how public health saves lives  

The Invisible Shield, a four-part documentary series from RadicalMedia, made possible by Bloomberg Philanthropies, reveals how public health has saved countless lives, increasing lifespans and protecting people from the constant threat of disease.

View the trailer or stream The Invisible Shield on PBS.org
Influenza-like illness activity remains elevated but is decreasing nationally; vaccination is still encouraged 

CDC’s Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report, FluView, provides a valuable picture of laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-like illness activity state by state.

Influenza Surveillance
For week 12, ending March 23, CDC’s Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report, FluView shows that 9 jurisdictions experienced high activity. Nationwide, 3.1% of patient visits reported through the Outpatient Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) were due to respiratory illness that included fever plus a cough or sore throat (i.e., ILI). The national baseline is 2.9%. Five pediatric influenza-associated deaths were reported this week, bringing the total to 126 children who died of influenza thus far during the 2023–24 season. 

Visit the CDC Respiratory Virus Hospitalization Surveillance Network (RESP-NET) for weekly reports of hospitalizations across the United States due to three vaccine-preventable seasonal respiratory viruses: COVID-19, influenza, and RSV. 

Influenza Vaccination Dashboard
CDC's Weekly Flu Vaccination Dashboard shows that influenza vaccination coverage for all children is 2.8 percentage points lower this season compared with the same time last season (51.8% compared with 54.6%). Coverage this season so far is 9.8 percentage points lower compared with pre-pandemic coverage at the same time in March 2020 (61.6%).

CDC recommends everyone age 6 months and older get annual influenza vaccination. Influenza and other vaccines (including COVID-19 and pneumococcal vaccines) may be given at the same visit, if indicated. Infants age 6 months and older may receive influenza and COVID-19 vaccines at the same visit.

Locate influenza and COVID-19 vaccines in your area by entering your zip code in the VaccineFinder on Vaccines.gov or Vacunas.gov. To be listed as a provider by VaccineFinder, see the information on this website.

Related Links

When should vaccination proceed for patients who have symptoms of illness at the time of their visit? Watch the 1-minute answer, part of the Ask the Experts Video Series on YouTube.  

This week, our featured episode from the Ask the Experts Video Series addresses this common issue: We frequently see patients who are febrile or have an acute illness and are due for vaccinations. We are uncertain if we should withhold the vaccines or not. What do you advise? The video briefly describes that with a mild acute illness, with or without fever, a patient may still be vaccinated. In the case of a moderate or severe illness, a clinician should determine if vaccination should be deferred. 

The 1-minute video is available on our YouTube channel, along with our full collection of quick video answers to popular Ask the Experts questions.

Like, follow, and share Immunize.org’s social media accounts and encourage colleagues and others interested in vaccination to do likewise:

Vaccines in the news

These recent articles convey the potential risks of vaccine-preventable diseases and the importance of vaccination.

Immunize.org Website and Clinical Resources

Immunize.org updates its “Vaccine History Timeline” web page to include recent vaccine-related advances 

Do you need to know the year that CDC made a vaccination recommendation or FDA approved a new vaccine? Immunize.org’s Vaccine History Timeline main page was updated to include new events related to vaccines and immunization. 

If you would like to suggest an event to add, contact us at admin@immunize.org.

Spotlight on the website: VIS translations

Providing VISs to your patients in their own language increases their confidence in and understanding of vaccination. Immunize.org’s library of VIS translations includes 47 languages. At least 20 different VISs are available in 31 of those languages. You can access the VIS translations by searching for a specific language or by a specific vaccine. Most are translations of the current VISs. If a translation of the current VIS is not available, CDC states it is acceptable to use out-of-date VIS translations, accompanied by a current English version, when there have not been significant content changes.

Search by Language. At the top of any Immunize.org web page, under the tab Vaccines & VISs, click on “VIS Translations." The web page defaults to Spanish (our most frequently downloaded language). Tap the word Spanish and a drop-down list of available languages will appear. Select the language of interest. Then, click on the icon next to listed vaccine to view or download the PDF you want.  The current English VIS is also included because the current English version is the one required by law to be provided and documented in the vaccine administration record.

Search by Vaccine. From the top of any Immunize.org web page, click on Vaccines & VISs on the left side of the ribbon. Click on “VISs” and then click one of the “Vaccines” (listed on the left of the page). The image below shows the screen for MMR. At the top of the resulting “MMR Vaccine VIS” web page, you will see the image of the English VIS, followed by a listing of the current translations available. Click on the icon next to the listed language to view or download the translated MMR PDF.


Recap: Download the updated suite of Immunize.org vaccine storage and excursion response materials, including temperature logs and emergency response worksheets 

Immunize.org updated its entire suite of vaccine storage and response materials to align with the current CDC guidance for temperature monitoring in line with its Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit. They now accommodate two options for how to monitor temperatures in standard freezers or refrigerators, depending upon whether temperature monitoring is done with CDC-preferred continuous digital data loggers that display minimum and maximum temperatures (min/max), or other acceptable temperature monitoring devices without min/max displays. QR codes linking to online versions of the documents were added. Facilities using our temperature logs and vaccine storage emergency response worksheets should download these updated logs.

In addition to temperature logs, Immunize.org updated two resources designed to help you manage vaccine temperature excursions.

  • Vaccine Storage Emergency Response Worksheet: this worksheet helps healthcare professionals document inventory and evaluate vaccine usability in the aftermath of power failures and temperature excursions. The worksheet now has a column to document the funding source (e.g., VFC, private) of each vaccine lot affected.
  • Vaccine Storage Troubleshooting Record: this fillable form can document the conditions and staff response to any unacceptable vaccine storage event, such as exposures to temperatures that are outside the manufacturers' recommended storage ranges

Below are the links to Immunize.org’s four temperature logs to help track proper vaccine storage and handling. Temperature logs are available for refrigerators and standard (not ultra-cold) freezers in Celsius or Fahrenheit formats.

Related Links

Recap: Immunize.org “Ask the Experts: COVID-19” web section updated with new recommendations for adults age 65 and older

Immunize.org reviewed and updated its popular Ask the Experts: COVID-19 web page. Clinical questions and answers now reflect updates made by ACIP in February 2024, recommending administration of an additional dose of any 2023–2024 Formula COVID-19 vaccine for people age 65 and older at least 4 months after the most recent dose of 2023–2024 Formula COVID-19 vaccine. Updates were also made to VAERS reporting guidance, distinguishing between guidance for fully licensed products and products used under emergency use authorization.

Immunize.org’s Ask the Experts main page leads you to 30 web pages on various topics with more than 1,300 common or challenging questions and answers about vaccines and their administration. Immunize.org’s team of experts includes Kelly L. Moore, MD, MPH (team lead), Carolyn B. Bridges, MD, FACP, and Iyabode Beysolow, MD, MPH.

Related Links

Recap: Immunize.org updates “Meningococcal B Vaccine Recommendations by Age and Risk Factor” to include optional use of pentavalent MenABCWY

Immunize.org updated its one-page quick reference chart for healthcare providers, Meningococcal B Vaccine Recommendations by Age and Risk Factor. The chart includes the option to use pentavalent MenABCWY (Penbraya, Pfizer) when both MenACWY and Trumenba brand MenB vaccines are indicated at the same visit.

Related Links

Recap: Immunize.org updates “DTaP, Tdap, and Td Catch-Up Vaccination Recommendations by Prior Vaccine History and Age” to include CDC guidance for Td use in certain children younger than age 7 years

Immunize.org recently revised its 1-page guidance for healthcare professionals titled DTaP, Tdap, and Td Catch-Up Vaccination Recommendations by Prior Vaccine History and Age. References to DT vaccine, which is no longer available, were deleted. DT had been used in children younger than age 7 years who had a history of developing encephalopathy within 7 days after DTaP vaccination, not due to another cause. In this rare circumstance, CDC now recommends off-label use of Td vaccine, licensed for age 7 years or older, in these children who are younger than age 7, on the same schedule as would be followed to complete DTaP series.

Related Links

Recap: Immunize.org updates “Key Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals” training guide organized by experience level

Immunize.org recently updated its Key Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals 5-page training guide for providers. Minor edits were made to add new resources and update URLs. Review this resource to ensure you and your team are not missing out on vaccination training and resources to support your work.

Related Link

  • Immunize.org: Clinical Resources A–Z main page, where you can filter by topic, vaccine, language, or other criteria

Featured Resources

Voices for Vaccines releases podcast with Paul Offit, MD, discussing his new book on deciphering COVID-19 myths

Voices for Vaccines (VFV) posted a new entry in its Vax Talk podcast series: Tell Paul Offit When It's Over featuring Paul Offit, MD. A description from the VFV web page appears below.

What caused SARS-CoV-2? Are vaccine mandates necessary? Is COVID here to stay? How can we protect ourselves in this new world? These are just some of the questions Dr. Paul Offit tackles in his new book Tell Me When It’s Over: An Insider’s Guide to Deciphering Covid Myths and Navigating Our Post-Pandemic World. Join us for this lively conversation about his book and the latest vaccine news.

Related Links

It’s Adolescent Immunization Action Week! Use Unity Consortium’s toolkit to help adolescents get up to date on immunizations. 

This week is Adolescent Immunization Action Week (#AIAW24), the Unity Consortium's annual observance urging parents, healthcare providers, and adolescents to keep adolescents up to date on immunizations. Visit Unity’s AIAW24 campaign page for social media-ready materials you can use to draw attention to improving adolescent immunization coverage. Use the hashtag #AIAW24 to spread the word.


Unity’s password-protected toolkit includes graphics and a short article about the observance for emails, newsletters, or blogs. To access this, sign up at the bottom of the AIAW24 web page.

Place your order! Sturdy, laminated versions of the 2024 U.S. immunization schedules from Immunize.org now shipping.

Laminated versions of the 2024 U.S. child and adolescent immunization schedule and the 2024 U.S. adult immunization schedule are available and shipping now. We do anticipate selling out, so if you need some, do not delay!

While the schedules are available online from CDC at no cost, Immunize.org’s printed, laminated booklets are ideal for use in any busy healthcare setting where vaccinations are given.

  • Durable: their tough coating can be wiped down, and they’re durable enough to stand up to a year's worth of use
  • Format: each schedule is produced in a 16-page, 8.5” X 11” booklet format; with color coding for easy reading, our laminated schedules replicate the original CDC formatting, including all tables and notes
  • Easy access to CDC updates: CDC added an online addendum page to the schedule, where new recommendations from ACIP made during 2024 can be posted. The laminated schedule addendum pages include custom QR codes you can scan to view or print the current CDC addendum from CDC's website, as needed.
  • Adult schedule bonus content: the adult schedule includes a bonus page with Immunize.org’s popular 1-page handout summarizing the dose, route, and needle size recommendations for all vaccines and recipients


1 copy: $10.00
2–4 copies: $9.50 each
5–19 copies: $8.50 each
20–99 copies: $7.50 each
100–499 copies: $6.00 each
500–999 copies: $5.00 each
1,000–1,999 copies: $4.00 each
2,000+ copies: $3.25 each

Visit the Shop Immunize.org: Laminated Schedules web page to view images of all the pages, to download the order form, and to order today!

For additional information, call 651-647-9009 or email admininfo@immunize.org.

Related Links

Updated 65+ Flu Defense website offers resources for healthcare professionals serving older adults   

Confident recommendations for influenza vaccine from healthcare providers are powerfully persuasive. To assist you in maximizing protection for your patients, Immunize.org, in collaboration with CSL Seqirus, updated the 65+ Flu Defense website.

Older adults are at increased risk of severe influenza and COVID-19 illness, including hospitalization and death, especially if they are not up to date on these vaccinations. An updated fact sheet on the website, The Importance of Preventing Influenza and COVID-19, offers responses to help guide discussions with patients on the importance of preventing influenza and COVID-19. 

This helpful site includes information, tools, and tips for communicating with adults age 65 and older about the scope and severity of influenza. Resources include:

Check out the updated 65+ Flu Defense website at www.influenza-defense.org to assist your ongoing efforts in protecting this vulnerable population.

Explore the www.Give2MenACWY​.org website to increase coverage for the meningococcal ACWY booster and other adolescent vaccinations

Immunize.org's www.Give2MenACWY.org website promotes the importance of adolescent vaccination, including the recommended MenACWY vaccine booster dose at age 16. Many teens are behind on vaccines because of the pandemic, so vaccine outreach is more important than ever.

Materials on this colorful website for healthcare professionals incorporate the 2020 ACIP meningococcal vaccine recommendations and coverage statistics from CDC’s National Immunization Survey–Teen (NIS–Teen). One particularly popular resource on the site is the update Algorithm for MenACWY Immunization in Adolescents 11 through 18 Years of Age.


The website is divided into five easy-to-access sections:

The site also categorizes materials according to whether they are primarily of interest to providers, to adolescents, or to parents.

Visit Give2MenACWY.org and enjoy browsing (and deploying) its bountiful resources.

Related Links 

Notable Publications

“Text vs Patient Portal Messaging to Improve Influenza Vaccination Coverage: A Health System-Wide Randomized Clinical Trial” published in JAMA Internal Medicine

In the March 18 issue, JAMA Internal Medicine published Text vs Patient Portal Messaging to Improve Influenza Vaccination Coverage: A Health System-Wide Randomized Clinical Trial. Immunize.org's director for research, Sharon G. Humiston, MD, MPH, is an author. The key points appear below. 

Question: Can either patient portal or text message reminders to patients about influenza vaccination raise vaccination rates across a health system, and do text messages work better than portal messages?

Findings: In this 3-arm randomized clinical trial that included 262,085 patients in 79 primary care practices, neither portal nor text message patient reminders were successful in raising overall influenza vaccination rates.

Meaning: Health systems and health care professionals need to implement more intensive interventions than patient reminders to raise influenza vaccination rates.

For more upcoming events, visit our Calendar of Events.

About IZ Express

IZ Express is supported in part by Grant No. 1NH23IP922654 from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Its contents are solely the responsibility of Immunize.org and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.

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ISSN 2771-8085

Editorial Information

  • Editor-in-Chief
    Kelly L. Moore, MD, MPH
  • Managing Editor
    John D. Grabenstein, RPh, PhD
  • Associate Editor
    Sharon G. Humiston, MD, MPH
  • Writer/Publication Coordinator
    Taryn Chapman, MS
    Courtnay Londo, MA
  • Style and Copy Editor
    Marian Deegan, JD
  • Web Edition Managers
    Arkady Shakhnovich
    Jermaine Royes
  • Contributing Writer
    Laurel H. Wood, MPA
  • Technical Reviewer
    Kayla Ohlde

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