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Issue 1,682: March 15, 2023
Top Stories Pages and Handouts
Vaccine Information Statements

Featured Resources
Upcoming Events

Top Stories

CDC updates and expands its screening recommendations for hepatitis B virus infection in the United States

CDC published Screening and Testing for Hepatitis B Virus Infection: CDC Recommendations—United States, 2023 on March 10 in MMWR. The report updates previous guidelines, now recommending that all adults be screened for HBV infection with a triple-panel test at least once in their lifetimes.

The new guidelines also recommend that people who are not vaccinated for hepatitis B, but are at increased risk of HBV infection, receive periodic testing.  Risk-based testing is expanded to include more conditions:

  • People incarcerated or formerly incarcerated in a jail, prison, or other detention setting
  • People with a history of sexually transmitted infections or multiple sex partners
  • People with a history of hepatitis C virus infection

Anyone can be infected with hepatitis B. Because risk may be transient or unrecognized, all adults can benefit from knowing their status and being protected from infection. To provide increased access to testing, anyone who requests HBV testing should receive it, regardless of disclosure of risk. In addition to screening, CDC recommends vaccination of all people younger than age 60 years and all people age 60 or older at increased risk. Anyone age 60 or older may be vaccinated.
A person who is unvaccinated may have blood drawn for screening, followed by the first dose of vaccine at the same visit. If vaccination is indicated, it should not be delayed if screening is not feasible.

Access the MMWR article in HTML or PDF.

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FDA approves intramuscular injection as an option, in addition to subcutaneous administration, for M-M-R II, Varivax, and ProQuad vaccines 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved intramuscular (IM) injection as an option for M-M-R II (measles-mumps-rubella vaccine), Varivax (varicella vaccine), and ProQuad (measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine) from Merck. Previously, these vaccines were only licensed for subcutaneous (subcut) injection. 

Two brands of MMR vaccine are distributed in the United States. Only Merck’s brand is licensed for either IM or subcut administration. Priorix from GSK is licensed for subcut administration. In coming weeks, will update its resources on vaccine administration to reflect this new route of administration option.

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March is Women’s History Month; celebrates the many contributions of women in vaccinology

March is Women's History Month and acknowledges the important contributions of women to vaccinology. Since the beginning of the vaccine era, women contributed to vaccine science and vaccination programs globally. We celebrate women’s trailblazing contributions in vaccinology, including:

  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduced smallpox inoculation to Britain and Western Europe in 1721
  • Anna Wessels Williams isolated the reference strain of diphtheria used to develop the first diphtheria antitoxin and later a diphtheria toxoid in the 1890s. She developed a quick test to diagnose rabies in 1902.
  • Margaret Pittman recognized in 1931 that type b of Haemophilus influenzae was a major cause of disease
  • Ida A. Bengtson developed the complement fixation test in the 1920s, which was used to standardize units of biological activity for botulinum, gas gangrene, and other antitoxins
  • Pearl L. Kendrick and Grace Elderling researched pertussis in the 1940s, tested their vaccine first on themselves, and ran a successful clinical trial, resulting in the first vaccine against pertussis. Loney Clinton Gordon aided their efforts.
  • Dorothy Horstmann showed that poliovirus reaches the brain through the blood in the 1940s
  • Clara I. Nigg codeveloped botulinum toxoids in 1947
  • Isabel M. Morgan and her team proved that inactivated viruses could produce immunity in the 1940s; her work led the development of Salk's polio vaccine in 1955
  • Brigitte Alice Askonas's work on antibodies and T-cells in the 1950s informed research to improve vaccines
  • Ruth L. Kirshstein helped develop and refine tests to assure the safety of viral vaccines against polio, measles, and rubella in the 1950s–1970s
  • Özlem Türeci helped lead the development of the BioNTech/Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine in 2020 
  • Lisa Jackson led the world's first COVID-19 clinical vaccine trial in 2020
  • Kizzmekia Corbett helped create the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 2020
  • These are a few of the countless women contributing to vaccine development and the success of vaccination programs worldwide

The contributions of all of the women who work tirelessly to advance vaccine science, policy, and program implementation are deeply appreciated.  
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Back to top updates its "Checklist of Current Versions of U.S. COVID-19 Vaccination Guidance and Clinic Support Tools"

The reviews and updates the Checklist of Current Versions of U.S. COVID-19 Vaccination Guidance and Clinic Support Tools every month, prominently indicating when it was last updated at the top of the page. This month’s updates are minimal, including an updated FDA page on expiration dates and the date of the  Vaccines: COVID-19 main page.

All COVID-19 vaccination providers should review the checklist regularly to be sure practices stay up to date.

CDC posted a spotlight on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) this season. Multiple estimates show that influenza vaccine provides substantial protection to children and adults this season against illness and hospitalization.

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Influenza activity remains low nationally but is still circulating; keep encouraging vaccination

CDC continues to recommend influenza vaccination for those not yet protected as long as influenza is circulating. Keep in mind young children who still need a second dose in their first vaccination season and those who need vaccination during pregnancy.

CDC’s Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report, FluView, provides a valuable snapshot of influenza activity state by state. For week 9, ending March 4, FluView reports that 2.4% of outpatient visits nationwide were due to respiratory illness that included fever plus a cough or sore throat (i.e., influenza-like illness [ILI]). The national baseline is 2.5%. Multiple respiratory viruses are co-circulating; the relative contribution of influenza virus infection to ILI varies by location. So far this season, 125 children died from influenza-associated causes.

Influenza Vaccination Dashboard
CDC’s Weekly Flu Vaccination Dashboard shows that vaccination coverage for all children remains 2.3 percentage points lower compared with same time in February 2021 (53.0% compared with 55.3%). Where children live is strongly associated with how likely they are to be vaccinated: the influenza vaccination rate among rural children is 19.1 percentage points lower compared with children living in urban areas (37.5% compared with 56.7%).

CDC posted a spotlight on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) this season. Multiple estimates show that this season, influenza vaccine provides substantial protection against illness and hospitalization to children and adults.

CDC recommends everyone age 6 months and older get annual influenza vaccination. “” offers VaccineFinder, a service of Boston Children’s Hospital, to help people find influenza and COVID-19 vaccines for any age group. To be listed as a provider by VaccineFinder, see the information at this website.

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Spotlight:'s “Clinic Tools: Administering Vaccines” main page provides practical tools based on authoritative sources's Clinic Tools: Administering Vaccines main page is a collection of resources from, CDC, and other organizations. To find it, select the "Clinic Tools" tab in the middle of the blue banner atop every web page and then select "Administering Vaccines." 

On the "Clinic Tools: Administering Vaccines" main page, you will find educational materials such as: 

The right-hand column of the page features partner resources, links to vaccine administration guidelines, and The Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ("The Pink Book") textbook. 

Visit the Clinic Tools: Administering Vaccines main page on

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Vaccines in the news

These recent articles convey the potential risks of vaccine-preventable diseases and the importance of vaccination. Pages and Handouts updates "Talking about Vaccines" web pages on alternative schedules, autism, and MMR vaccine updated Talking about Vaccines: Alternative Schedules, Talking about Vaccines: Autism, and Talking about Vaccines: MMR Vaccine main pages. These pages lead to many resources from, CDC, and others to help healthcare professionals communicate with parents and patients about important vaccine topics.

The pages were updated to optimize links and content.


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Vaccine Information Statements posts 19 new and updated Vaccine Information Statements in Bengali further expanded its collection of Vaccination Information Statement (VIS) translations. With CDC funding to increase the availability of translations, 19 new VIS translations were added in Bengali.

All translations are available in print-ready PDF format. 

New VIS translations in Bengali

Check the version dates of your office copies of newly updated translations. Translations of previous VIS versions should be discarded now that translations of the current versions are available.

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Back to top posts 11 new and updated Vaccine Information Statements in Hmong expanded its collection of Vaccination Information Statement (VIS) translations. With CDC funding to increase the availability of translations, 11 new VIS translations were added in Hmong.

All translations are available in print-ready PDF format. 

New VIS translations in Hmong

Check the version dates of your office copies of newly updated translations. Translations of previous VIS versions should be discarded now that translations of the current versions are available.

Related Links posts 15 new and updated Vaccine Information Statements in Thai expanded its collection of Vaccination Information Statement (VIS) translations. With CDC funding to increase the availability of translations, 15 new VIS translations were added in Thai.

All translations are available in print-ready PDF format. 

New VIS translations in Thai

Check the version dates of your office copies of newly updated translations. Translations of previous VIS versions should be discarded now that translations of the current versions are available.

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Featured Resources

Society for Women’s Health Research releases video series to help people learn about HPV vaccine and cancer prevention

The Society for Women's Health Research launched its #SWHRtalksHPV Video Series to help parents and guardians learn about cancer prevention via HPV vaccination. Experts share facts and insights as they answer key questions.

The series of ten videos features’s chief policy and partnerships officer, L.J Tan, PhD, MS.


Share the video series on social media and with your networks, and tag @SWHR and #SWHRtalksHPV. 

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Order today! Laminated versions of CDC’s 2023 immunization schedules now available and shipping.'s laminated versions of the 2023 U.S. child and adolescent immunization schedule and the 2023 U.S. adult immunization schedule are in stock and shipping now. Order while supplies last.

While the schedules are available online from CDC at no cost,’s laminated schedules are ideal for use in any busy healthcare setting. Their tough coating can be wiped down, and they’re durable enough to stand up to a year of use.

  • Length: Each schedule with appendices is 12 pages
  • Size: Standard 8.5” X 11” booklet format
  • Full Color: With color coding for easy reading, our laminated schedules replicate the original CDC formatting, including the essential tables and notes
  • Bonus: The adult schedule includes’s popular 1-page handout summarizing the dose, route, and needle length recommendations for all vaccines and recipients


Pricing for Each Schedule
$10.00: 1 copy
$  9.50 each: 2–4 copies
$  8.50 each: 5–19 copies
$  7.50 each: 20–99 copies
$  6.00 each: 100–499 copies 
$  5.00 each: 500–999 copies
$  4.00 each: 1,000–1,999 copies
$  3.25 each: 2,000+ copies

Visit Shop Laminated Schedules to view images of each page and order today!

For additional information, call 651-647-9009 or email

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CHOP's Vaccine Education Center offers video on measles symptoms, spread, and complications

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's (CHOP) Vaccine Education Center (VEC) offers Measles: Symptoms, Spread & SSPE in its Doctors Talk video series. In this video, CHOP's Paul Offit, MD, and Katie Lockwood, MD, MEd, talk about measles, its symptoms, side effects, and physician worries when a child contracts measles.

Watch and share the video

Related Links Back to top’s webinar, “Improving the Vaccination Experience: Reducing Pain and Anxiety for Children and Adults,” now available on-demand

On February 28, and Canadian experts from the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, and Society for Infodemic Management, Québec, hosted a 1-hour webinar, Improving the Vaccination Experience: Reducing Pain and Anxiety for Children and Adults. During this webinar, participants learned about the principles behind vaccination pain and anxiety and simple, evidence-based strategies to reduce apprehension. These strategies were developed by the experts from HELP Eliminate Pain in Kids and Adults. Their work was used by the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, and others to develop guidelines for reducing vaccination pain.

The video of the webinar, slide set, and web links to other resources are now available on our website for on-demand viewing. Please view and share this important webinar with your colleagues.

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Updated 65+ Flu Defense website offers resources for healthcare professionals serving older adults   

Confident recommendations for influenza vaccine from healthcare providers are powerfully persuasive. To assist you in maximizing protection for your patients,, in collaboration with CSL Seqirus, updated the 65+ Flu Defense website.

Older adults are at increased risk of severe influenza and COVID-19 illness, including hospitalization and death, especially if they are not up to date on these vaccinations. An updated fact sheet on the website, The Importance of Preventing Influenza and COVID-19, offers responses to help guide discussions with patients on the importance of preventing influenza and COVID-19. 

This helpful site includes information, tools, and tips for communicating with adults age 65 and older about the scope and severity of influenza. Resources include:

Check out the updated 65+ Flu Defense website at to assist your ongoing efforts in protecting this vulnerable population.

Organizing a new vaccination program? Use’s Vaccinating Adults: A Step-by-Step Guide—free to download by chapter or in its entirety.

Download’s free 142-page book on adult vaccination to help build your program and train your team: Vaccinating Adults: A Step-by-Step Guide (Guide).


This thorough "how to" guide on adult vaccination provides easy-to-use, practical information covering all essential activities. It helps vaccine providers enhance their existing adult vaccination services or introduce them into any clinical setting.

The Guide is available to download/print either by chapter or in its entirety free at The National Vaccine Program Office and CDC both supported the development of the Guide and provided early technical review.

The Guide is a valuable resource to assist providers in increasing adult vaccination rates. Be sure to get a copy today!

Please note: this guide was produced in 2017, before the COVID-19 era, and reflects the recommendations of that time.

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Upcoming Events

Virtual: NFID hosts webinar “Updates from February 2023 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Meeting” on March 22; CME available

The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases will host a webinar titled Updates from February 2023 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Meeting, 12:00–1:00 p.m. (ET) on March 22. During the webinar, William Schaffner, MD, NFID Medical Director and ACIP liaison, and Jessica R. MacNeil, MPH, ACIP Deputy Executive Secretary, will discuss the updates to current U.S. vaccination recommendations for children, adolescents, and adults. Content will focus primarily on non-COVID-19-related topics.

There is no fee to participate in this activity, but pre-registration is required. CME available.

Register for the webinar.

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Virtual: Massachusetts Adult Immunization Coalition hosts “28th Annual Massachusetts Adult Immunization Conference” on April 4; CME available

Massachusetts Adult Immunization Coalition (MAIC) will host its 28th Annual Massachusetts Adult Immunization Conference virtually, 8:00 a.m.–4:00 p.m. (ET), on April 4. This year's theme is the future of vaccination.  

The goal is to educate healthcare professionals on best practices for adult immunization. The 2023 conference offers an opportunity to receive the most updated information on routine adult immunization from leading experts and network with experts and colleagues.

Professionals outside of Massachusetts are encouraged to attend. First-time attendees get free registration; $50 for students and $75 for others. Up to 6.75 CME credits are available.

Register for the conference

For more upcoming events, visit our Calendar of Events.

About IZ Express

IZ Express is supported in part by Grant No. 1NH23IP922654 from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Its contents are solely the responsibility of and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.

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ISSN 2771-8085

Editorial Information

  • Editor-in-Chief
    Kelly L. Moore, MD, MPH
  • Managing Editor
    John D. Grabenstein, RPh, PhD
  • Associate Editor
    Sharon G. Humiston, MD, MPH
  • Writer/Publication Coordinator
    Taryn Chapman, MS
    Courtnay Londo, MA
  • Style and Copy Editor
    Marian Deegan, JD
  • Web Edition Managers
    Arkady Shakhnovich
    Jermaine Royes
  • Contributing Writer
    Laurel H. Wood, MPA
  • Technical Reviewer
    Kayla Ohlde

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