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Immunization Action Coalition
IAC Express 2008
Issue number 719: March 24, 2008
 
Contents of this Issue
Select a title to jump to the article.
  1. Resources available to help professionals answer questions related to recent vaccine court case
  2. CDC releases 2006 U.S. surveillance data for acute viral hepatitis
  3. CDC reports on progress U.S. Immunization Information Systems made during 2006
  4. CDC website posts images of the three 2008 childhood vaccination schedules
  5. MMWR announces that March 24 is World TB Day and publishes information about TB trends in the U.S. during 2007
  6. AARP surveys seniors about their attitudes toward and knowledge of influenza and pneumococcal immunization
  7. Important: Be sure to give influenza vaccine throughout the influenza season--through spring
  8. CDC website posts presentation slides from the February ACIP meeting
  9. CDC issues "Summary of Notifiable Diseases--United States, 2006"
  10. Federal government adds several new resources to its PandemicFlu website
  11. Massachusetts adult immunization conference set for May 22 in Worcester
 
Abbreviations
AAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; AMA, American Medical Association; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IAC, Immunization Action Coalition; MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; NCIRD, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; NIVS, National Influenza Vaccine Summit; VIS, Vaccine Information Statement; VPD, vaccine-preventable disease; WHO, World Health Organization.
  
Issue 719: March 24, 2008
1.  Resources available to help professionals answer questions related to recent vaccine court case

Recently, CDC, professional associations, advocacy groups, and individuals have posted resources that can help healthcare professionals answer patients' and parents' questions regarding a recent vaccine injury compensation case concerning the Poling family. A listing of resources follows:

CDC's resources on mitochondrial disease:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/mitochondrial.htm

FAQs about mitochondrial disease:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/mitochondrial_faqs.htm

Statement from, Cristy Balcells, executive director, Mitochondrial Disease Action Committee:
http://www.blog.mitoaction.org/2008/03/21/statement-on-autism-vaccines-mitochondrial-disease

AAP's "Facts for Parents About Autism and Vaccine Safety":
http://www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/autismfactsforparents.pdf

AAFP's statements on the vaccine injury compensation case and comments made by Senator John McCain, click here

Statement from Dr. Geri Dawson, chief science officer, Autism Speaks:
http://www.autismspeaks.org/dawson_statement_vaccine_case.php

Statement from Dr. DiMauro, chair, United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation Scientific & Medical Advisory Board, click here.

Press release from HHS's Health Resources Services Administration:
http://newsroom.hrsa.gov/releases/2008/vaccinestatement.htm

HHS information on the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: http://www.hrsa.gov/vaccinecompensation

Article by Dr. Rahul Parikh published in Salon.com:
http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/03/13/poling

Article by Dr. Rahul Parikh published in the AAP journal Pediatrics:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/121/3/621

Article by Kathleen Seidel published on the neurodiversity weblog: http://neurodiversity.com/weblog/article/148

Transcript of a CDC press briefing, held on March 8:
http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/transcripts/2008/t080307.htm

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2 CDC releases 2006 U.S. surveillance data for acute viral hepatitis

On March 21, CDC published "Surveillance for Acute Viral Hepatitis--United States, 2006" as one of its Surveillance Summaries. A portion of the abstract is reprinted below.


Reporting Period Covered: Cases in 2006, the most recent year for which data are available, are compared with those from previous years.

Description of System: Cases of acute viral hepatitis are reported voluntarily to CDC by state and territorial epidemiologists via CDC's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Reports are received electronically via CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS).

Results: During 1995-2006, hepatitis A incidence declined 90% to the lowest rate ever recorded (1.2 cases per 100,000 population). Declines were greatest among children and in those states where routine vaccination of children was recommended beginning in 1999. An increasing proportion of cases occurred in adults. During 1990-2006, acute hepatitis B incidence declined 81% to the lowest rate ever recorded (1.6 cases per 100,000 population). Declines occurred among all age groups but were greatest among children aged <15 years. Following a peak in the late 1980s, incidence of acute hepatitis C declined through the 1990s; however, since 2003, rates have plateaued, with a slight increase in reported cases in 2006. In 2006, as in previous years, the majority of these cases occurred among adults, and injection-drug use was the most common risk factor.

Interpretation: The results documented in this report suggest that implementation of the 1999 recommendations for routine childhood hepatitis A vaccination in the United States has reduced rates of infection and that universal vaccination of children against hepatitis B has reduced disease incidence substantially among younger age groups. Higher rates of hepatitis B continue among adults, particularly males aged 25-44 years, reflecting the need to vaccinate adults at risk for HBV infection. The decline in hepatitis C incidence that occurred in the 1990s was attributable primarily to a decrease in incidence among injection-drug users. The reasons for this decrease were unknown but likely reflected changes in behavior and practices among injection-drug users.

Public Health Actions: The expansion in 2006 of recommendations for routine hepatitis A vaccination to include all children in the United States aged 12-23 months is expected to reduce hepatitis A rates further. Ongoing hepatitis B vaccination programs ultimately will eliminate domestic HBV transmission, and increased vaccination of adults with risk factors will accelerate progress toward elimination. Prevention of hepatitis C relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk for hepatitis C (e.g., injection-drug users) regarding ways to protect themselves from infection and on identifying and preventing transmission of HCV in healthcare settings.


To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of the surveillance summary, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss5702.pdf

To access a web-text (HTML) version of the surveillance summary, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5702a1.htm

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3 CDC reports on progress U.S. Immunization Information Systems made during 2006

CDC published "Immunization Information Systems Progress--United States, 2006" in the March 21 issue of MMWR. Portions of a summary made available to the press are reprinted below.


This report highlights selected data from CDC's 2006 Immunization Information System Annual Report (IISAR). The data indicated that 65 percent of all U.S. children aged <6 years, approximately 15 million children, participated in an Immunization Information System (IIS), an increase from 56 percent in 2005. IISs can provide accurate data on which to make informed immunization decisions and better protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. Most grantees (70 percent) reported that their IISs have the capacity to track vaccinations for persons of all ages. Data on vaccinations were entered within 30 days of vaccine administration for 69 percent of children aged <6 years. However, results for several data completeness measures are low. These findings underscore the need to continue efforts to address challenges to full participation and ensure high quality information.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5711a4.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5711.pdf

To receive a FREE electronic subscription to MMWR (which includes new ACIP statements), go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrsubscribe.html

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4 CDC website posts images of the three 2008 childhood vaccination schedules

CDC recently posted the three childhood immunization schedules in image-only format (jpg). These are suitable for presentations. Links to the three images follow:

To access the image of the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 0-6 Years, United States 2008, click here

To access the image of the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 7-18 Years, United States 2008, click here

To access the image of the Catch-up Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 4 Months-18 Years Who Start Late or Who Are More Than 1 Month Behind, United States 2008, click here.

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5 MMWR announces that March 24 is World TB Day and publishes information about TB trends in the U.S. during 2007

CDC published "World TB Day--March 24, 2008" and "Trends in Tuberculosis--United States, 2007" in the March 21 issue of MMWR. "World TB Day--March 24, 2008" is reprinted in its entirety below, as is a press summary of "Trends in Tuberculosis--United States, 2007."


"WORLD TB DAY--MARCH 24, 2008"
World TB Day is observed each year on March 24 to commemorate the date in 1882 when Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Worldwide, TB remains one of the leading causes of death from infectious disease. An estimated 2 billion persons (i.e., one-third of the world's population) are infected with M. tuberculosis. In 2005, approximately 8.8 million persons became ill from TB, and 1.6 million died from the disease. World TB Day provides an opportunity for TB programs, nongovernmental organizations, and other partners to describe problems and solutions related to the TB pandemic and to support worldwide TB-control efforts. The U.S. theme for this year's observance is Partnerships for TB Elimination.

After approximately 30 years of decline, the number of TB cases reported in the United States increased 20% during 1985-1992. This led to a renewed emphasis on TB control and prevention during the 1990s and actions that reversed the increase in cases. Although the 2007 TB rate (4.4 cases per 100,000 population) was the lowest recorded in the United States since national reporting began in 1953, the average annual decline has slowed since 2000. In addition, multidrug-resistant TB remains a threat, extensively drug-resistant TB has become an emerging threat, and racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born persons continue to account for a disproportionate number of TB cases.

CDC and its partners are committed to eliminating TB in the United States. In many states, education and awareness programs convened by local TB coalitions will be conducted in commemoration of World TB Day. Additional information about World TB Day and CDC TB-elimination activities is available at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/worldtbday


PRESS SUMMARY OF "TRENDS IN TUBERCULOSIS--UNITED STATES, 2007"
A CDC analysis of 2007 national tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data shows continuing disparities and a slowing decline in U.S. TB rates.

In 2007, the national TB rate fell to an all-time low of 4.4 cases per 100,000 people (13,293 new cases). However, progress in eliminating TB has slowed recently, with 3.8 percent average annual declines in rates for 2000-2007, compared with 7.3 percent average annual declines for 1993-2000. TB continues to disproportionately affect foreign-born persons and racial/ethnic minorities. Foreign-born persons had a TB rate nearly 10 times higher than U.S.-born persons (20.6 vs. 2.1 cases per 100,000) and accounted for 58.5 percent of all cases with known origin. Hispanics had a rate seven times higher than whites, and for the fourth consecutive year, accounted for more TB cases than any other racial/ethnic group. The TB rate was 23 times higher in Asians than in whites. Blacks had a rate eight times higher than whites, and accounted for the greatest disparity in TB rates among U.S.-born persons. Among persons with TB and a known HIV test result, 11.3 percent were co-infected with HIV, a major risk factor for TB disease. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB cases remained stable in 2006, accounting for 1.1 percent of cases for which these data are available. The authors note that continued disparities among persons with TB and the diminishing decline of TB incidence threaten progress toward TB elimination in the U.S.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of "World TB Day--March 24, 2008," go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5711a1.htm

To access a web-text (HTML) version of "Trends in Tuberculosis—United States, 2007," go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5711a2.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5711.pdf

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6 AARP surveys seniors about their attitudes toward and knowledge of influenza and pneumococcal immunization

In November 2007, AARP published the results of a telephone survey of adults age 50 years and older to learn about their influenza and pneumococcal immunization histories and their preferred sources of immunization information. AARP is a national nonprofit association that works on behalf of people age 50 years and older.

The survey, conducted from September 28 to October 21, 2007, indicated the following:

  • About 85 percent of respondents said they had not received an influenza shot for the 2007-08 influenza season. The high number of unvaccinated respondents may reflect the timing of the survey (early in the vaccination season). About 56 percent said they had received a shot for the 2006-07 season.
     
  • Of those who did not get a shot for the 2006-07 season, 38 percent said they didn't think they needed one, 13 percent were concerned about possible side effects, and 12 percent said they never get influenza disease.
     
  • About half (53 percent) of the respondents said they have never had a pneumococcal shot. Of those, about four in ten (39 percent) said they didn't think they needed one, and one-fifth (21 percent) said they never get pneumonia.
     
  • When asked about the recommended age for a healthy adult to get a pneumococcal shot, slightly more than one-quarter (27 percent) said age 65 or older, about one-fifth (19 percent) said between 55 and 64 years of age, and another fifth (20 percent) said between 45 and 54 years of age. Notably, nearly one-quarter (23 percent) said they did not know the recommended age for receiving a pneumococcal shot.
     
  • When asked about the recommended frequency for receiving a pneumococcal shot, about three in ten (28 percent) said once a year. In contrast, about one in six (16 percent) correctly said once in a lifetime.
     
  • More than six in ten (62 percent) respondents who said they have ever received an influenza or pneumococcal shot said they got it at their doctor's office. About one in nine (11 percent) said they got the shot at their local health department, while about half as many said they received it at an employer-sponsored health fair (7 percent), at a local clinic, hospital, or health center (7 percent), or at their local pharmacy (6 percent)
     
  • When asked about their trusted sources of information, 69 percent said their family doctor is their most trusted source of information. None of the other sources of information were cited by more than one in twenty respondents.
     
  • When asked about how they prefer to receive information about immunizations, 61 percent said from their doctor, while about 15 percent said through printed materials. None of the remaining options were cited by more than 7 percent of respondents.
     
  • When asked if they had been a caregiver in the past year or were currently one, 27 percent said yes.

To access the entire survey from the AARP website, go to: http://www.aarp.org/research/health/prevention/flu_pneumonia.html In the box titled Learn More, click on the link titled Full Report (PDF).

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7 Important: Be sure to give influenza vaccine throughout the influenza season--through spring

Influenza is currently circulating, and vaccination should continue from now through May. Visit the following websites often to find the information you need to keep vaccinating. Both are continually updated with the latest resources.

The National Influenza Vaccine Summit website at http://www.preventinfluenza.org

CDC's Seasonal Flu web section at http://www.cdc.gov/flu

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8 CDC website posts presentation slides from the February ACIP meeting

The CDC website recently posted the PowerPoint slides presented at the February 27-28 ACIP meeting. Slides are available on the following topics:

  • Influenza vaccines
  • Meningococcal vaccine (MCV4)
  • Use of vaccines during pregnancy/breastfeeding
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines
  • Immunization safety--measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine
  • Vaccine supply
  • Measles outbreak
  • Rotavirus vaccines
  • Economic analyses of vaccines and immunization
  • Rabies vaccine and biologicals
  • General recommendations
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines

To access the slides, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/acip/slides-feb08.htm

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9 CDC issues "Summary of Notifiable Diseases--United States, 2006"

CDC published "Summary of Notifiable Diseases--United States, 2006" in the March 21 issue of MMWR Summary of Notifiable Diseases.

The 100-page summary has three primary sections. They are Part 1: Summaries of Notifiable Diseases in the United States, 2006; Part 2: Graphs and Maps for Selected Notifiable Diseases in the United States, 2006; and Part 3: Historical Summaries of Notifiable Diseases in the United States, 1975-2006.

The opening paragraph of the preface follows.


The Summary of Notifiable Diseases--United States, 2006 contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases in the United States for 2006. Unless otherwise noted, the data are final totals for 2006 reported as of June 30, 2007. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by state and territorial health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). The Summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/summary.html This site also includes publications from previous years.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the summary online, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5553a1.htm

Because the summary is a large file, printing problems may occur because of printer memory size. One solution is to print a few pages at a time. To access more tips on downloading and printing large PDF files, go to: http://www.immunize.org/nslt.d/tips.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5553.pdf

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10.  Federal government adds several new resources to its PandemicFlu website

CDC recently added several resources to its PandemicFlu website:

  • "Secretary Leavitt Writes about Pandemic Exercise with Bloggers" (March 20; blog entry)
     
  • "HHS Releases 'Pandemic Planning Update V' Report" (March 19; report)
     
  • "U.N. Group Warns Indonesia Situation Critical" (March 18; news release)
     
  • "Webcast on State Pandemic Planning Assessments" (March 13; archived webcast)
     
  • "Join Us Wednesday, April 2, at 2 PM ET" (announcement of an upcoming live online discussion to aid state pandemic planners)

To access these resources, go to: http://www.pandemicflu.gov and click on the pertinent link.

To access a broad range of continually updated information on seasonal influenza, avian influenza, pandemic influenza, and swine influenza, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/flu

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11.  Massachusetts adult immunization conference set for May 22 in Worcester

An adult immunization conference, "Current Trends in Emerging Infectious Diseases and Adult Vaccines," is scheduled for May 22 at the DCU Center in Worcester, MA. It is sponsored by Masspro and the Massachusetts Adult Immunization Coalition.

To access the conference brochure, which includes a registration form and conference agenda, go to:
http://www.masspro.org/IFCF/AIPT/docs/events/281701PHImmunBrocFNL.pdf

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This website is supported in part by a cooperative agreement from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (Grant No. 5U38IP000290) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. The website content is the sole responsibility of IAC and does not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.