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Immunization Action Coalition
IAC Express 2008
Issue number 704: January 7, 2008
 
Contents of this Issue
Select a title to jump to the article.
  1. CDC reports on four states' collective public health response to a rabid kitten during summer 2007
  2. NCIRD adds information on vaccine safety monitoring to its Q&A on Hib vaccine recall
  3. Time's running out: January 25 is the early-bird registration deadline for the 2008 National Immunization Conference
  4. FDA's "A Parent's Guide to Kid's Vaccines" is an excellent resource on infant, childhood, and teen vaccination
  5. Important: Be sure to give influenza vaccine throughout the influenza season--from now through spring
  6. Reminder: CDC's series on Epidemiology and Prevention of VPDs ceases live broadcast; DVD and Internet formats planned
  7. Conference on Vaccine Research scheduled for May 5-7 in Baltimore; abstracts due February 15
  8. Use of the new International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required for yellow fever vaccine
  9. MMWR corrects pneumonia and influenza mortality data reported on December 14, 2007
 
Abbreviations
AAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; AMA, American Medical Association; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IAC, Immunization Action Coalition; MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; NCIRD, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; NIVS, National Influenza Vaccine Summit; VIS, Vaccine Information Statement; VPD, vaccine-preventable disease; WHO, World Health Organization.
  
Issue 704: January 7, 2008
1.  CDC reports on four states' collective public health response to a rabid kitten during summer 2007

CDC published "Public Health Response to a Rabid Kitten--Four States, 2007" in the January 4 issue of MMWR. Portions of the article are reprinted below.


On July 24, 2007, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) was notified by the North Carolina Division of Public Health (NCDPH) of a stray, rabid kitten that had been handled by players on several girls' softball teams during a tournament in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. This report summarizes the public health response to exposure to the rabid kitten and highlights the importance of multistate collaboration in a rabid animal investigation.

During July 13-15, 2007, the South Atlantic Summer Showdown softball tournament was held at a recreational complex in Spartanburg County. Softball games were held at four recreational facilities. Approximately 60 teams of approximately 12 players each from multiple states participated in this tournament. Spectators at the tournament included families and friends of the softball players and tournament coordinators and staff members.

On July 14, a softball coach from a North Carolina team found an apparently healthy and alert kitten in a barrel-shaped garbage bin located near one of the playing fields at which the tournament was held. The kitten was placed in a box and later brought to at least six different games played at two recreational facilities that same day. That evening, the kitten was transported by the coach in her private vehicle to her home in Buncombe County, North Carolina. On July 15, the kitten began behaving abnormally and became increasingly lethargic. The coach's housemate brought the kitten to an emergency animal hospital in Buncombe County for care. Although further investigation would reveal that the housemate had been bitten by the kitten, she did not disclose this to the attending veterinarian at the time of the visit. After evaluation indicated that the kitten was severely ill, the kitten was euthanized and held for cremation, planned for July 18. Rabies was not suspected by the attending veterinarian.

On July 18, the mother of a softball player from North Carolina, after learning from the coach that the kitten had become ill and was subsequently euthanized, contacted the emergency animal hospital and asked whether the kitten had been tested for rabies. The mother had been bitten while trying to feed the kitten during the tournament. Rabies testing had not been planned by the animal hospital because the coach's housemate had signed a routine release form indicating the kitten had not bitten anyone during the preceding 10 days. The mother went to the clinic, requested the cat's body, and took it in her private vehicle to her local health department. On July 20, the local health department sent the body to the North Carolina State Laboratory for Public Health for rabies testing. On July 23, the kitten had rabies diagnosed by direct fluorescent antibody testing. The rabies virus was identified as the eastern United States raccoon variant by rabies monoclonal antibody typing.

The mother provided her travel history to NCDPH, which then contacted SCDHEC on July 23 to alert the department about the possible human rabies exposures in Spartanburg County. NCDPH and SCDHEC obtained a roster of teams from the tournament organizer and discovered that Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee all had teams participating in the tournament. NCDPH and SCDHEC contacted CDC and state public health authorities in Georgia and Tennessee, and all four states subsequently initiated contact investigations; these investigations sought to identify and locate potentially exposed persons and ensure that only persons with actual exposures (i.e., contact with saliva, either through a bite, a lick on the oral or nasal mucosa, or a claw scratch) received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). SCDHEC coordinated the interstate investigation and led its own intrastate investigation to locate persons, assess exposures, and prescribe PEP as warranted; in South Carolina, PEP is provided by the state to exposed persons as determined by SCDHEC.

To locate potentially exposed persons, each state issued advisories (e.g., through daily emails) to local health departments; additionally, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina used local news media to alert the public and solicit responses from potentially exposed persons. South Carolina also activated the state's 2-1-1 telephone information system, which uses media channels to advise the public to call a dedicated state telephone number (2-1-1) for information related to specific public health emergencies. . . .

This investigation highlights the need for rabies-prevention measures, such as continued rabies vaccination among domesticated animals and wild animal populations. The investigation also demonstrates the importance of interstate collaboration during a rabies response. Exposed persons were identified through cooperation among the states and CDC, which included daily conference calls and email exchanges among investigators in the affected states; CDC participated in conference calls to provide additional expertise. In this investigation, rapid, open, interstate collaboration enabled the expeditious identification and prophylactic treatment of exposed persons while preventing unnecessary administration of PEP.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5651a1.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5651.pdf

To receive a FREE electronic subscription to MMWR (which includes new ACIP statements), go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrsubscribe.html

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2 NCIRD adds information on vaccine safety monitoring to its Q&A on Hib vaccine recall

NCIRD recently updated "Questions and Answers about Hib Recall" with information on monitoring the safety of the Hib vaccine lots being recalled by Merck & Co.

To access "Questions and Answers about Hib Recall," go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/recalls/hib-recall-faqs-12-12-07.htm

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3 Time's running out: January 25 is the early-bird registration deadline for the 2008 National Immunization Conference

Yikes! Here it is January 7 and you haven't registered for this year's National Immunization Conference (NIC). Lucky for you, the people in charge at NIC have posted everything you need online. Read on for answers to pressing questions:

Where is it and when is it? NIC is scheduled for March 17-20 in Atlanta.

What does registration cost and how do I register?
The fee for early-bird registration is $200. Wait until January 26, and it's $225 for standard registration; wait until March 1, and it's $250 for onsite registration. To register online, go to:
http://conferences.taskforce.org/nic

What's happening at NIC this year?
For comprehensive program information, including the newly posted draft agenda, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/events/nic

For additional information, contact the NIC conference planning team at (404) 639-8225 or nipnic@cdc.gov

To plan some fun in Atlanta, visit the official tourism website at http://www.atlanta.net

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4 FDA's "A Parent's Guide to Kid's Vaccines" is an excellent resource on infant, childhood, and teen vaccination

FDA's 4-page publication "A Parent's Guide to Kids' Vaccines" is a boon to health professionals who provide vaccination services to infants, children, and teens. The guide briefly makes the case for vaccination, explains the role parents play in vaccinating their children, and gives basic information on the 15 single-antigen or combination vaccines commonly given to people age 18 years and younger.

To download and print copies of the publication for parents, or to direct parents to the online publication, go to:
http://www.fda.gov/consumer/updates/kidsvaccines073107.html

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5 Important: Be sure to give influenza vaccine throughout the influenza season--from now through spring

Influenza vaccination should continue through the early months of 2008. Visit the following websites often to find the information you need to keep vaccinating. Both are continually updated with the latest resources.

The National Influenza Vaccine Summit website at http://www.preventinfluenza.org

CDC's Seasonal Flu web section at http://www.cdc.gov/flu

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6 Reminder: CDC's series on Epidemiology and Prevention of VPDs ceases live broadcast; DVD and Internet formats planned

The satellite broadcast series Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases has been presented at least once a year since 1995. Because of escalating costs and limited availability of the CDC broadcast facility, the series will no longer be presented as a live broadcast. Beginning in 2008, this training program will be available only on DVD and by Internet.

The 2008 series is expected to be available in late spring. Future issues of NCIRD's electronic newsletter Immunization Works and IAC's IAC Express will keep readers informed as specific details are made available.

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7 Conference on Vaccine Research scheduled for May 5-7 in Baltimore; abstracts due February 15

CDC published "Notice to Readers: 11th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research" in the January 4 issue of MMWR. The notice is reprinted below in its entirety.


CDC and 11 other national and international agencies and organizations will collaborate with the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases in sponsoring the 11th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research: Basic Science, Product Development, and Clinical and Field Studies, to be held May 5-7, 2008, at the Marriott Waterfront Hotel, Baltimore, Maryland. The conference is the largest scientific forum devoted exclusively to the research and development of vaccines and related technologies for prevention and treatment of disease through immunization, bringing together human and veterinary vaccinology researchers. Twenty-two invited speakers will appear at five special symposia on innate immunity, cutaneous vaccination, adjuvants, universal influenza vaccination, and recently licensed vaccines. Six oral sessions and posters will include presentations selected through peer review from submitted abstracts. Eligible abstracts will be considered for the Maurice R. Hilleman Early-Stage Career Investigator Award, which provides $10,000 for research expenses and a travel stipend and registration for the 2009 conference.

Deadline for submission of abstracts is February 15, 2008. Information about the preliminary program, abstract submission, registration, hotel accommodation, and exhibition space is available at http://www.nfid.org/conferences/vaccine08, and by email (vaccine@nfid.org), fax ([301] 907-0878), telephone ([301] 656-0003, ext. 19), and mail (NFID, Suite 750, 4733 Bethesda Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814-5278).


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the notice, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5651a5.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5651.pdf

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8 Use of the new International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required for yellow fever vaccine

CDC published "Notice to Readers: Requirements for Use of a New International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis for Yellow Fever Vaccine" in the January 4 issue of MMWR. The notice is reprinted below in its entirety.


In response to the 2005 revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), as of December 15, 2007, a new International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) has replaced the old certificates. The new certificate provides space for potential certification of additional types of vaccination or prophylaxis to protect against newly emerging or reemerging diseases or other events of public health importance. However, the only vaccination currently required to be indicated on the ICVP is for yellow fever.

Yellow fever vaccine is required under IHR 2005 by certain countries for entry, and the new ICVP is required for any yellow fever vaccination administered beginning December 15, 2007. Persons vaccinated before that date may use the old certificate until it expires 10 years from the date of vaccination.

The new certificates are available to healthcare providers through the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO). The new ICVPs are available for order from GPO online at http://bookstore.gpo.gov/collections/vaccination.jsp, or by telephone ([866] 512-1800). Additional information regarding the new requirement is available from the CDC Travelers' Health Team by telephone ([404] 639-4500) or online via the Travelers' Health website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentintcertofvaccination.aspx



To access a web-text (HTML) version of the notice, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5651a4.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5651.pdf

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9 MMWR corrects pneumonia and influenza mortality data reported on December 14, 2007.

CDC published "Errata: Vol. 56, No. 49" in the January 4 issue of MMWR. The errata correct pneumonia and influenza mortality data that MMWR reported on December 14, 2007. The correction is reprinted below in its entirety.


In Table III, "Deaths in 122 U.S. cities, week ending December 8, 2007 (49th Week)," on page 1304, incorrect pneumonia and influenza mortality data were listed for certain reporting areas under the column heading, "P&I Total." The correct data are as follows: Jersey City, NJ, 2; Canton, OH, 2; St. Louis, MO, 3; Charlotte, NC, 10; Knoxville, TN, 10; Mid. Atlantic, 103; E.N. Central, 136; W.N. Central, 47; S. Atlantic, 66; E.S. Central, 68; and Total, 734.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the errata, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5651a6.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5651.pdf

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This website is supported in part by a cooperative agreement from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (Grant No. 5U38IP000290) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. The website content is the sole responsibility of IAC and does not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.