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Immunization Action Coalition
IAC Express 2007
Issue number 638: January 2, 2007
 
Contents of this Issue
Select a title to jump to the article.
  1. Reminder: Be sure to continue administering influenza vaccine during the early months of 2007
  2. CDC reports low level of activity in the first two months of the 2006-07 U.S. influenza season
  3. CDC's report on U.S. measles activity in 2005 indicates continuing need for high measles vaccination coverage
  4. IAC revises five of its professional- and patient-education print materials
  5. Free: Order two pads each of the Vaccine Education Center's Tdap and HPV informational tear sheets at no charge
  6. New: Current Issues in Immunization Net Conference to focus on new adult hepatitis B and Tdap recommendations
  7. January 19 is the deadline for nominations for the Influenza Summit's 2007 Immunization Excellence Awards
  8. Showcase your PSAs during the 2007 Epidemiology & Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases satellite-broadcast series
  9. CDC adds new materials to its influenza web section
  10. For immunization coalitions: AED to offer three skill-based workshops at CDC's National Immunization Conference
 
Abbreviations
AAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; AMA, American Medical Association; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IAC, Immunization Action Coalition; MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; NCIRD, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; NIVS, National Influenza Vaccine Summit; VIS, Vaccine Information Statement; VPD, vaccine-preventable disease; WHO, World Health Organization.
  
Issue 638: January 2, 2007
1.  Reminder: Be sure to continue administering influenza vaccine during the early months of 2007

Remember, influenza vaccination should continue in the early months of 2007. Visit the following websites often to find the information you need to keep vaccinating. Both are continually updated with the latest resources.

The National Influenza Vaccine Summit website at http://www.preventinfluenza.org

CDC's Influenza web section at http://www.cdc.gov/flu

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2 CDC reports low level of activity in the first two months of the 2006-07 U.S. influenza season

CDC published "Update: Influenza Activity—United States, October 1-December 9, 2006" in the December 22, 2006, issue of MMWR. Portions of the article are reprinted below.


During October 1-December 9, 2006, influenza activity remained low in the United States overall but increased in southeastern states. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity since October 1, the beginning of the 2006-07 influenza season, and updates the previous summary.

Viral Surveillance
During October 1-December 9, 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System collaborating laboratories in the United States tested 27,474 specimens for influenza viruses, and 884 (3.2%) were positive. Of these, 689 (77.9%) were influenza A viruses and 195 (22.1%) were influenza B viruses. A total of 171 (24.8%) of the 689 influenza A viruses were subtyped; 162 (94.7%) of these were influenza A (H1) viruses, and nine (5.3%) were influenza A (H3) viruses. Influenza-positive tests were reported from 37 states in all nine surveillance regions; 441 (49.9%) of the 884 positive tests were reported from Florida.

Antigenic Characterization
States are requested to submit a subset of their influenza isolates to CDC for further antigenic characterization. Since October 1, 2006, CDC has antigenically characterized 28 influenza viruses collected and submitted by U.S. laboratories, including 10 influenza A (H1) isolates from six states, one influenza A (H3) isolate, and 17 influenza B viruses from four states. Eight of the 10 influenza A (H1) viruses were characterized as A/New Caledonia/20/99-like, the influenza A (H1) component of the 2006-07 influenza vaccine, and two showed reduced titers with ferret antisera produced against A/New Caledonia/20/99. The influenza A (H3) virus was characterized as A/Wisconsin/67/2005-like, the influenza A (H3) component of the 2006-07 influenza vaccine. Influenza B viruses currently circulating can be divided into two antigenically distinct lineages represented by B/Victoria/02/87 and B/Yamagata/16/88. The influenza B component of the 2006-07 influenza vaccine is B/Ohio/01/2005, which belongs to the B/Victoria lineage of viruses. Six (35.3%) of the 17 influenza B viruses characterized belong to the B/Victoria lineage of viruses; three were similar to B/Ohio/01/2005, and three had reduced titers with antisera produced against B/Ohio/01/2005. Eleven (64.7%) of the 17 influenza B viruses characterized belong to the B/Yamagata lineage of viruses. Nine (81.8%) of the 11 influenza B/Yamagata viruses were received from a single state. . . .

Editorial Note:
During October 1-December 9, 2006, the United States experienced a low level of influenza activity. Widespread and regional activity was reported in only six states in the southeastern area of the country. Outbreaks were reported primarily among children in Alabama, Florida, and North Carolina. Influenza virus isolates have been reported in all nine surveillance regions in the United States. Patient visits for ILI [influenza-like illness], represented by the Sentinel Provider Surveillance Network, and P&I [pneumonia and influenza] mortality, represented by the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System, have not exceeded national baseline levels. In addition, no influenza-associated hospitalizations from the EIP [Emerging Infections Program] or NVSN [New Vaccine Surveillance Network] surveillance systems have been reported to CDC and no influenza-related pediatric deaths have been reported through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

Vaccination is the best method for prevention of influenza and its potentially severe complications. Although the optimal months for influenza vaccination are October and November, vaccination in December and beyond is recommended because influenza activity peaks in January or later during most seasons. The degree of antigenic match between the current vaccine strains and strains that will circulate this season will be determined as more strains become available for analysis. To date, influenza A (H1) viruses have been reported most frequently, and the majority of influenza A (H1) viruses characterized are well matched by the vaccine.

Influenza vaccine can be administered to any person who wants to reduce the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza. Annual influenza vaccination is particularly targeted toward persons at increased risk for influenza-related complications and severe disease (e.g., children aged 6-59 months, pregnant women, persons aged >=50 years, and persons aged 6 months-49 years with certain chronic medical conditions) and their close contacts (e.g., healthcare workers and household contacts of persons at increased risk, including contacts of children aged <6 months). In addition, all children aged 6 months to <9 years who have not been previously vaccinated at any time should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine. Vaccine should be offered throughout the influenza season, even after influenza activity has been documented in the community.

Influenza surveillance reports for the United States are posted online weekly during October-May and are available at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivity.htm Additional information regarding influenza viruses, influenza surveillance, the influenza vaccine, and avian influenza is available at http://www.cdc.gov/flu


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5550a5.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5550.pdf

To receive a FREE electronic subscription to MMWR (which includes new ACIP statements), go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrsubscribe.html

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3 CDC's report on U.S. measles activity in 2005 indicates continuing need for high measles vaccination coverage

CDC published "Measles—United States, 2005" in the December 22, 2006, issue of MMWR. Portions of the article are reprinted below.


Measles is a highly infectious, acute viral illness that can be complicated by severe pneumonia, diarrhea, and encephalitis and can result in death. In the prevaccine era, approximately 500,000 cases of measles occurred annually in the United States. During 2005, local and state health departments reported to CDC 66 confirmed cases of measles (incidence rate: less than one case per 1 million population), 34 of which were from a single outbreak in Indiana associated with infection in a traveler returning to the United States. This report describes the epidemiology of U.S. measles cases in 2005 and documents the absence of endemic measles and the continued risk for imported measles infections that can result in transmission within the United States. The findings underscore the need to maintain the highest possible measles vaccination coverage in the United States and to adhere to recommendations regarding measles vaccination. . . .

Editorial Note:
The epidemiology of measles in 2005 supports previous conclusions that endemic transmission of measles has been eliminated in the United States. Measles incidence was low (less than one case per million population), measles cases were geographically isolated, and 95% of cases were linked to importations (i.e., internationally imported or U.S.-acquired, import-linked cases). In addition, no predominant and recurring viral genotype was detected, and the measles genotypes detected, in most circumstances, had been circulating within the country of presumed exposure.

Half of all the cases in 2005 are traceable to one unvaccinated U.S. resident, who was infected during a visit to Romania of less than 2 weeks. This outbreak was the largest documented in the United States since 1996. All but two of the 34 patients in this outbreak were unvaccinated. The outbreak occurred because measles was imported into a population of children whose parents had chosen not to vaccinate their children because of safety concerns, despite evidence that measles-containing vaccine is safe and effective. A major epidemic was averted because of high vaccination levels and a low rate of vaccine failure in the surrounding community. The cost of containing this outbreak was estimated at $167,685. This outbreak and other cases reported during 2005 likely could have been prevented had existing ACIP vaccination recommendations been followed. The index case traveler should have been vaccinated with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine before departure; exposed school-age children and personnel working in healthcare facilities also should have had the recommended 2 doses before exposure.

The epidemiology of measles in 2005 highlights the need to maintain the highest possible measles vaccination coverage in the United States and to continue to address the concerns of those who choose not to be vaccinated or who choose not to vaccinate their children. Because 100% coverage in U.S. residents might never be achieved and because communities of unvaccinated persons continue to exist, accurate surveillance and rapid response to outbreaks are essential to preventing widespread transmission of imported measles. Moreover, providing assistance to other countries to control measles globally can limit the risk for imported measles in the United States.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5550a2.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5550.pdf

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4 IAC revises five of its professional- and patient-education print materials

IAC recently revised five of its immunization and hepatitis education materials for health professionals, patients, and parents. Following is a list of the updated materials; it explains the changes made to each and gives the link to each:

For health professionals:
(1) "Does Your Patient Have Chronic Hepatitis B?" now has updated information about medical management of patients with chronic infection.

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of it, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/p2162.pdf

(2) "Checklist for Safe Vaccine Handling and Storage" was slightly revised and reformatted.

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of it, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/p3035chk.pdf

For patients:
(3) "Should You Be Vaccinated Against Hepatitis A? A screening questionnaire for adults" now tells patients that they can be vaccinated if they want to be protected against infection from the hepatitis A virus, even if they are not in one of the risk groups for the disease. If they are in a risk group, they do not need to indicate which one.

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of it, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/2190hepa.pdf

(4) "Should You Be Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B? A screening questionnaire for adults" now tells patients that they can be vaccinated if they want to be protected against infection from the hepatitis B virus, even if they are not in one of the risk groups for the disease. If they are in a risk group, they do not need to indicate which one.

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of it, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/2191hepb.pdf

For parents:
(5) "Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies" has been updated with the most current information about the birth dose.

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of it, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/p4110bab.pdf

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5 Free: Order two pads each of the Vaccine Education Center's Tdap and HPV informational tear sheets at no charge

The Vaccine Education Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia recently published two informational tear sheets: (1) "Tdap: What you should know" and (2) "Human Papillomavirus: What you should know." Each sheet answers frequently asked questions about the diseases caused by (1) tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis infections and (2) human papillomavirus infection. The sheets also present information about the recently licensed tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines.

Intended for patients and providers, the tear sheets are available in English and Spanish. Health professionals can order two 50-sheet pads of each tear sheet in each language at no charge. Additional pads are available for $3 each, plus shipping.

To access a ready-to-copy (PDF) version of the Tdap tear sheet, click here.

To access a ready-to-copy (PDF) version of the HPV tear sheet, click here.

To order the tear sheets online, go to:
http://www.chop.edu/vaccine/vec/vecprof_order.cfm

Order by email at vaccines@email.chop.edu or by phone at (215) 590-9990.

For additional ordering information, go to:
http://www.chop.edu/consumer/jsp/division/generic.jsp?id=75982

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6 New: Current Issues in Immunization Net Conference to focus on new adult hepatitis B and Tdap recommendations

Scheduled for January 18, 2007, from noon to 1PM ET, the net conference Current Issues in Immunization is designed to provide clinicians with up-to-date information on immunization. The program has two primary topics: (1) new adult hepatitis B vaccine recommendations and (2) new adult Tdap recommendations.

The conference requires pre-registration, as space is limited. Registration will close when the course is full or on January 17, 2006 (midnight ET). To register for the conference, go to: http://www2.cdc.gov/nip/isd/ciinc

The program will combine a telephone audio conference with simultaneous online visual content. It will allow for a question and answer segment both by telephone and Internet. Internet access and a separate phone line are needed to participate.

For instructions and system requirements, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/nip/ed/ciinc/instructions.htm

For additional information, go to: nipinfo@cdc.gov

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7 January 19 is the deadline for nominations for the Influenza Summit's 2007 Immunization Excellence Awards

The National Influenza Vaccine Summit (NIVS) is soliciting candidates for the 2007 NIVS Immunization Excellence Awards. The 2007 awards will recognize individuals and organizations that have made extraordinary contributions towards improved adult and/or childhood influenza vaccination rates within their communities. The deadline for nominations is January 19.

For more information, go to: http://www.preventinfluenza.org/whatsnew.asp For a nomination form, go to:
http://www.preventinfluenza.org/nivs_nomin_2007.doc

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8 Showcase your PSAs during the 2007 Epidemiology & Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases satellite-broadcast series

Attention state and local immunization projects: CDC would like to showcase public service announcements (PSAs) and other immunization promotional materials created within the last year. The venue is the four-part satellite-broadcast series Epidemiology & Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.

Ideally, CDC would like to receive PSAs on beta-sp videotape, but the agency can work with other formats if necessary. Contact Dr. William Atkinson at wla2@cdc.gov for mailing instructions.

Epidemiology & Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases is scheduled for broadcast on four consecutive Thursdays in 2007: January 25 and February 1, 8, and 15. Each broadcast will be held from noon to 4PM ET. Registrations are not being accepted yet. IAC Express will publicize registration information and other details when they becomes available.

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9 CDC adds new materials to its influenza web section

CDC recently added new materials to its Influenza web section:

  1. "FluWorkLoss 1.0" software
  2. "FluAid 2.0" software
  3. "Questions & Answers: 2006-07 Influenza (Flu) Season"

To access these materials, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/whatsnew.htm#new and click on the pertinent links.

To access a broad range of continually updated information on seasonal influenza, avian influenza, pandemic influenza, and swine influenza, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/flu

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10.  For immunization coalitions: AED to offer three skill-based workshops at CDC's National Immunization Conference

The Academy for Educational Development (AED) recently announced its Immunization Coalitions Technical Assistance Network (IZTA) will be conducting three trainings before and after CDC's National Immunization Conference.

CDC's conference is scheduled for March 5-8 in Kansas City. AED's training sessions are scheduled for March 4 and the afternoon of March 8, after the CDC conference adjourns. Information on the trainings follows:

(1) Social Marketing to Promote Adult Immunization will be held from 2PM to 6PM CT on March 4.

(2) Recruiting New Coalition Partners and Keeping Old Partners Engaged will be held from 3PM to 6PM CT on March 4.

(3) Strategic Planning for Immunization Coalitions will be held from 1PM to 3PM on March 8.

For further information, go to: http://www.izcoalitionsta.org/content.cfm?id=612 To register, send an email to IZTA@aed.org

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This website is supported in part by a cooperative agreement from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (Grant No. 5U38IP000290) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. The website content is the sole responsibility of IAC and does not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.