Immunization Action Coalition and the Hepatitis B Coalition

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Issue Number 575            January 9, 2006

CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE

  1. NIP website posts the 2006 Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule and links to related materials
  2. New: NEJM reports on two studies indicating that rotavirus vaccines in development are effective and safe
  3. CDC provides online information about the new hepatitis B recommendations
  4. Act soon: Deadlines for three important CDC events are coming up fast
  5. CDC updates its Influenza web section with materials on avian and seasonal influenza
  6. Influenza update: CDC reports on influenza activity during December 18-24, 2005
  7. February 10 is nomination deadline for the 3rd annual "Natalie J. Smith, MD, Award"
  8. MMWR Quick Stats show healthcare settings that delivered or prescribed vaccines for persons younger than 18 years in 2002-03
  9. New: January 6 issue of IAC's Hep Express electronic newsletter now available online

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ABBREVIATIONS: AAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IAC, Immunization Action Coalition; MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; NIP, National Immunization Program; VIS, Vaccine Information Statement; VPD, vaccine-preventable disease; WHO, World Health Organization.
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January 9, 2006
NIP WEBSITE POSTS THE 2006 CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENT IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE AND LINKS TO RELATED MATERIALS

On January 6, the NIP website posted the 2006 Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule in a variety of formats. Also posted are links to additional information, such as changes made to the schedule since its last release, and related documents, such as an interactive child's immunization schedule.

To access the 2006 Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule and links to associated material, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule.htm
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January 9, 2006
NEW: NEJM REPORTS ON TWO STUDIES INDICATING THAT ROTAVIRUS VACCINES IN DEVELOPMENT ARE EFFECTIVE AND SAFE

On January 5, the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) published the results of two studies of rotavirus vaccines in development. The studies, each of which involved more than 60,000 subjects, indicate that the vaccines studied are effective in protecting infants against rotavirus gastroenteritis. In addition, infants given the vaccines had the same risk of intussusception as infants given placebo.

The article abstracts follow:

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SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF AN ATTENUATED VACCINE AGAINST SEVERE ROTAVIRUS GASTROENTERITIS

ABSTRACT
Background. The safety and efficacy of an attenuated G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were tested in a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

Methods. We studied 63,225 healthy infants from 11 Latin American countries and Finland who received two oral doses of either the HRV vaccine (31,673 infants) or placebo (31,552 infants) at approximately two months and four months of age. Severe gastroenteritis episodes were identified by active surveillance. The severity of disease was graded with the use of the 20-point Vesikari scale. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in a subgroup of 20,169 infants (10,159 vaccinees and 10,010 placebo recipients).

Results. The efficacy of the vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was 85 percent (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo) and reached 100 percent against more severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Hospitalization for diarrhea of any cause was reduced by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 53 percent; P<0.001). During the 31-day window after each dose, six vaccine recipients and seven placebo recipients had definite intussusception (difference in risk, –0.32 per 10,000 infants; 95 percent confidence interval, –2.91 to 2.18; P=0.78).

Conclusions. Two oral doses of the live attenuated G1P[8] HRV vaccine were highly efficacious in protecting infants against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, significantly reduced the rate of severe gastroenteritis from any cause, and were not associated with an increased risk of intussusception.

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To access the article abstract, go to:
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/354/1/11

To access the full text of the article, go to:
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/354/1/11

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SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF A PENTAVALENT HUMAN-BOVINE (WC3) REASSORTANT ROTAVIRUS VACCINE

ABSTRACT
Background. Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis and death worldwide.

Methods. We studied healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks old who were randomly assigned to receive three oral doses of live pentavalent human–bovine (WC3 strain) reassortant rotavirus vaccine containing human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and P[8] or placebo at 4-to-10-week intervals in a blinded fashion. Active surveillance was used to identify subjects with serious adverse and other events.

Results. The 34,035 infants in the vaccine group and 34,003 in the placebo group were monitored for serious adverse events. Intussusception occurred in 12 vaccine recipients and 15 placebo recipients within one year after the first dose including six vaccine recipients and five placebo recipients within 42 days after any dose (relative risk, 1.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 6.4). The vaccine reduced hospitalizations and emergency department visits related to G1–G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis occurring 14 or more days after the third dose by 94.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 91.2 to 96.6 percent). In a nested substudy, efficacy against any G1–G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis through the first full rotavirus season after vaccination was 74.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 66.8 to 79.9 percent); efficacy against severe gastroenteritis was 98.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 88.3 to 100 percent). The vaccine reduced clinic visits for G1–G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis by 86.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 73.9 to 92.5 percent).

Conclusions. This vaccine was efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis, decreasing severe disease and healthcare contacts. The risk of intussusception was similar in vaccine and placebo recipients.

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To access the article abstract, go to:
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/354/1/23

To access the full text of the article, go to:
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/354/1/23
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January 9, 2006
CDC PROVIDES ONLINE INFORMATION ABOUT THE NEW HEPATITIS B RECOMMENDATIONS

[The following is cross posted from IAC's Hep Express electronic newsletter, 1/6/06.]

CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis has created a web section featuring resources related to the new ACIP hepatitis B recommendations. The page includes links to the following:

  • frequently asked questions about the new recommendations
  • frequently asked questions about foreign-born persons and hepatitis B
  • state perinatal hepatitis B prevention program coordinators
  • the Vaccines for Children program
  • "Progress Towards Elimination of Perinatal and Childhood Hepatitis B Virus Infections," a PowerPoint presentation from the National Viral Hepatitis Prevention Conference, December 7, 2005

To access this information, and more, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/acip.htm
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January 9, 2006
ACT SOON: DEADLINES FOR THREE IMPORTANT CDC EVENTS ARE COMING UP FAST

Registration deadlines are coming up for three important CDC events that will take place in February and March. Take a little time now to make sure you're registered for any of the following that interest you:

(1) January 13 is the early-bird registration deadline for this year's National Immunization Conference, which will be held March 6-9 in Atlanta. The cost of registration by the early-bird deadline is $175, a $25 savings over the cost of later registration.

For online registration, go to:
http://conferences.taskforce.org/2006NIC/2006NIC.htm

For comprehensive conference information, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/nip/nic

(2) January 17 is the registration deadline for the net conference Current Issues in Immunization. Registration closes at midnight ET or when the course is full. Scheduled for January 19 from noon to 1PM ET, the net conference will focus on the new hepatitis A vaccine recommendations and vaccine information statements (VISs).

For online registration, go to:
http://www2.cdc.gov/nip/isd/ciinc

For comprehensive information on the net conference, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/nip/ed/ciinc

(3) January 31 is the registration deadline for the net conference titled New ACIP Recommendations: Prevention of Perinatal and Childhood Hepatitis B Infections. Registration closes at midnight ET or when the course is full. The net conference is scheduled from noon to 1PM ET on February 2.

For online registration, go to:
http://www2.cdc.gov/nip/isd/hepbconference

For comprehensive information on the net conference, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/nip/ed/ciinc/hepatitisb.htm
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January 9, 2006
CDC UPDATES ITS INFLUENZA WEB SECTION WITH MATERIALS ON AVIAN INFLUENZA AND SEASONAL INFLUENZA

CDC recently updated its Influenza web section with the following new and revised materials:

NEW
1. Turkey reports human cases of H5 avian flu (posted 1/5/06)

2. Fact sheet: Influenza symptoms, protection, and what to do if you get sick (posted 1/3/06)

To access these materials, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/whatsnew.htm#new and click on the pertinent links.

UPDATED
3. Recent avian influenza outbreaks in Asia and Europe (posted 12/28/05)

4. Key facts about avian influenza (bird flu) and avian influenza A (H5N1) virus (posted 12/27/05)

5. Guidelines and recommendations: Infection control measures for preventing and controlling influenza transmission in long-term care facilities (posted 12/23/05)

To access these materials, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/whatsnew.htm#updated and click on the pertinent links.

To access a broad range of continually updated information on seasonal influenza, avian influenza, and pandemic influenza, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/flu
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January 9, 2006
INFLUENZA UPDATE: CDC REPORTS ON INFLUENZA ACTIVITY DURING DECEMBER 18-24, 2005

CDC published "Update: Influenza Activity--United States, December 18-24, 2005" in the January 6 issue of MMWR. The article's first paragraph is reprinted below.

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During December 18-24, 2005, the number of states reporting widespread influenza activity increased to four. Four states reported regional activity, five reported local activity, and 31 reported sporadic activity.

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To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5451a3.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5451.pdf

To receive a FREE electronic subscription to MMWR (which includes new ACIP statements), go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrsubscribe.html
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January 9, 2006
FEBRUARY 10 IS NOMINATION DEADLINE FOR THE 3RD ANNUAL "NATALIE J. SMITH, MD, AWARD"

The Association of Immunization Managers (AIM) is seeking nominations for the 2006 "Natalie J. Smith, MD, Award." The award, which will be presented at the National Immunization Conference in Atlanta in March, was established to honor the memory of Dr. Smith's outstanding management and leadership skills in the area of state and national vaccine-preventable disease programs. Eligible candidates are current or recently retired immunization program managers who are designated as the persons primarily responsible for directing the 64 city, state, or territorial immunization programs directly funded by the National Immunization Program. The deadline for nominations is February 10.

Dr. Smith, who died in 2003 at age 41, was deputy director, National Immunization Program, CDC. Prior to accepting the NIP position, she served for eight years as chief, Immunization Branch, California Department of Health Services. Dr. Smith served as a member of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and as chair of the Association of Immunization Managers. She wrote numerous significant publications on immunization and was a frequent presenter and consultant on immunization-related issues.

To access more information about the award, including the nomination criteria and a 2006 nomination form, go to: http://www.immunizationmanagers.org/pdfs/SmithAwardForm2006.pdf
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January 9, 2006
MMWR QUICK STATS SHOW HEALTHCARE SETTINGS THAT DELIVERED OR PRESCRIBED VACCINES FOR PERSONS YOUNGER THAN 18 YEARS IN 2002-03

CDC published "Quick Stats: Number of Vaccine Doses Provided or Prescribed for Patients Aged [Younger Than] 18 Years, by Vaccine and Setting--United States, 2002-2003" in the January 6 issue of MMWR. The text that accompanies the graphic is reprinted below.

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Childhood vaccines primarily are administered in physician offices. During 2002-2003, vaccines were administered during 1% of emergency department visits made by children aged [younger than] 18 years; the majority of vaccines administered in emergency departments were tetanus related. In hospital outpatient departments, vaccines were administered during 9% of visits made by children aged [younger than] 18 years.

SOURCE: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2002-2003. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/ahcd/ahcd1.htm

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To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5451a4.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5451.pdf
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January 9, 2006
NEW: JANUARY 6 ISSUE OF IAC'S HEP EXPRESS ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER NOW AVAILABLE ONLINE

The January 6 issue of Hep Express, an electronic newsletter published by IAC, is now available online. It is intended for health and social service professionals involved in the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis. IAC Express has already covered some of the information presented in the January 6 Hep Express; titles of articles we have not yet covered follow.

  • Continuing education credits available for national hepatitis conference attendees
  • Management of hepatitis conference set for April 6-8 in Bethesda
  • Access AASLD conference presentations online
  • Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board adds two resources to its website

To access the January 6 issue, go to:
http://www.hepprograms.org/hepexpress/issue39.asp

To sign up for a free subscription to Hep Express, go to:
http://www.hepprograms.org/hepexpress/signup.asp

To access previous issues of Hep Express, go to:
http://www.hepprograms.org/hepexpress

 

Immunization Action Coalition1573 Selby AvenueSt. Paul MN 55104
E-mail: admin@immunize.org Web: http://www.immunize.org/
Tel: (651) 647-9009Fax: (651) 647-9131

This page was updated on January 9, 2006