Pneumococcal disease is a serious disease that causes much sickness and death. CDC estimates that more than 150,000 hospitalizations from pneumococcal disease occur annually in the U.S. An estimated 30,300 cases and 3,250 deaths from invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD-bacteremia and -meningitis) occurred in the United States in 2019 (see www.cdc.gov/abcs/downloads/SPN_Surveillance_Report_2019.pdf.). Children younger than age two years and adults age 50 years and older) have the highest incidence of serious disease. Case-fatality rates are highest for pneumococcal meningitis and bacteremia, and the highest mortality occurs among older adults and patients who have underlying medical conditions. The overall case-fatality rate for pneumococcal bacteremia is about 20%. Among older adults, this rate may be as high as 60%.