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Immunization Action Coalition
IAC Express 2007
Issue number 674: July 16, 2007
 
Contents of this Issue
Select a title to jump to the article.
  1. "Vaccinated" recounts the story of Maurice Hilleman's life-saving work in twentieth-century vaccine development
  2. Now in Spanish: VIS for pediatric diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccine
  3. CDC reports on hepatitis A vaccination coverage of U.S. children ages 24-35 months during 2004-05
  4. MMWR publishes ACIP's recommendations for prevention and control of influenza
  5. July issue of CDC's Immunization Works electronic newsletter now available online
  6. New: Unofficial summary of June 27-28 ACIP meeting now posted on IAC website
  7. ACOG's Immunization Wheel offers professionals abundant information on immunizing adolescent and adult women
  8. Newly launched: WHO/ICO Information Centre on Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer
  9. New: July 11 issue of IAC's Hep Express electronic newsletter now available online
  10. CDC reports on worldwide progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission during January 2006-May 2007
 
Abbreviations
AAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; AMA, American Medical Association; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IAC, Immunization Action Coalition; MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; NCIRD, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; NIVS, National Influenza Vaccine Summit; VIS, Vaccine Information Statement; VPD, vaccine-preventable disease; WHO, World Health Organization.
  
Issue 674: July 16, 2007
1.  "Vaccinated" recounts the story of Maurice Hilleman's life-saving work in twentieth-century vaccine development

Written by Paul A. Offit, MD, "Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases" was recently released to bookstores by Smithsonian Books, an imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers. The book tells the story of modern vaccines through the life of Maurice Hilleman, the scientist who developed most of them.

In his prologue, Dr. Offit writes that many of the likely readers of his book are well acquainted with the contributions Jonas Salk's and Louis Pasteur's vaccines have made to the lives of people around the globe. But even many in the immunization community know little or nothing about Maurice Hilleman's work. Dr. Offit writes:

". . . I'd bet not one of you knows the name of the scientist who saved more lives than all other scientists combined--a man who survived Depression-era poverty; the harsh, unforgiving plains of southeastern Montana; abandonment by his father; the early death of his mother; and, at the end of his life, the sad realization that few people knew who he was or what he had done: Maurice Hilleman, the father of modern vaccines."

"Vaccinated" received endorsement from David Oshinsky, recipient of the 2006 Pulitzer Prize in history for his book "Polio." Oshinsky wrote the following:

"Paul Offit's 'Vaccinated' brings to life one of the forgotten giants of medical research. His superb account of Maurice Hilleman, whose vaccines have saved untold millions of children from deadly disease, is medical writing at its finest: expertly crafted and beautifully told. As the debate over vaccination heats up, Offit's book is a timely reminder of the good that vaccines have done in the past century--and of the man responsible for developing these precious gifts of life."

Available in bookstores nationwide, "Vaccinated" is also available through the publisher's website at http://www.harpercollins.com/search/index.aspx?kw=vaccinated

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2 Now in Spanish: VIS for pediatric diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccine

Dated 5/17/07, the current version of the VIS for pediatric diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccines is now available on the IAC website in Spanish. IAC gratefully acknowledges the California Department of Health Services for the translations.

To obtain a ready-to-copy (PDF) version of the DTaP VIS in Spanish, go to: http://www.immunize.org/vis/spdtap01.pdf

To obtain it in English, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/vis/dtap01.pdf

For information about the use of VISs, and for VISs in more than 30 languages, visit IAC's VIS web section at http://www.immunize.org/vis

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3 CDC reports on hepatitis A vaccination coverage of U.S. children ages 24-35 months during 2004-05

CDC published "Hepatitis A Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 24-35 Months--United States, 2004-2005" in the July 13 issue of MMWR. Portions of the article and Editorial Note are reprinted below.


[From the article]
After the licensure of hepatitis A vaccine in 1995 for children aged >=24 months, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) incrementally expanded the proportion of children for whom it recommended the vaccine. In 1996, ACIP recommended vaccinating children in communities that had high rates of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, including American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities and selected Hispanic and religious communities. In 1999, ACIP extended the recommendation to include routine vaccination for all children living in states, counties, and communities with incidence rates twice the 1987-1997 national average of 10 cases per 100,000 population (i.e., >=20 cases per 100,000 population); ACIP also recommended considering vaccination for children living in states, counties, and communities with incidence rates exceeding the 1987-1997 national average (i.e., >10 to <20 cases per 100,000 population). National estimates of hepatitis A vaccination coverage were first made available through the 2003 National Immunization Survey (NIS), which indicated an overall national 1-dose coverage level of 16.0% (range: 6.4%-72.7%) among children aged 24-35 months. The estimates in this report update those findings by including 2 additional years of data (2004 and 2005). National 1-dose vaccination-coverage levels among children aged 24-35 months increased from 17.6% in 2004 to 21.3% in 2005. Coverage in states where vaccination was recommended (overall in 2005: 56.5%; range: 12.9%-71.0%) was below those for other recommended childhood vaccinations, such as varicella (87.5% in 2004). Despite low hepatitis A vaccination-coverage levels compared with other recommended childhood vaccinations, incidence of acute HAV infections have declined to the lowest level ever recorded. The 2005 licensure of the hepatitis A vaccine for use in younger children (aged >=12 months) and the 2006 ACIP guideline for routine hepatitis A vaccination of all children aged >=12 months should result in improved vaccination coverage and further reductions in disease incidence. . . .

[From the Editorial Note]
Despite low levels of 1-dose hepatitis A vaccination coverage compared with other recommended vaccinations, the number of cases and rates of acute hepatitis A in the United States have declined substantially, especially among racial/ethnic groups disproportionately affected by hepatitis A. Before the 1995 introduction of hepatitis A vaccine for children aged >=24 months, rates of acute hepatitis A were five times greater than the national average among AI/ANs and three times greater among Hispanics. In 2005, acute hepatitis A rates among AI/ANs were comparable to other populations but remained greater for Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics. This trend demonstrates progress toward eliminating racial/ethnic disparities previously observed in rates of acute hepatitis A.

The overall number of cases and rates of acute hepatitis A in the United States have declined to historic lows since the last peak in 1995. In 1995, a total of 31,582 cases were reported (12 per 100,000 population), compared with 4,488 cases (1.5 per 100,000) in 2005, which was the lowest annual number ever recorded. In 2005, similar rates of acute hepatitis A were reported by states where vaccination was recommended (2.1 per 100,000), states where vaccination was to be considered (1.5 per 100,000), and states where no specific recommendation for vaccination was in effect (1.3 per 100,000). Even limited vaccination coverage might reduce disease incidence through herd effects because young children are thought to be a major reservoir of infection. In one communitywide outbreak, approximately 40% of adults with hepatitis A without an identifiable source lived with a child aged <6 years who had evidence of recent HAV infection. Declines also might be the result of cyclic increases and decreases in HAV infections. . . .


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5627a2.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5627.pdf

To receive a FREE electronic subscription to MMWR (which includes new ACIP statements), go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrsubscribe.html

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4 MMWR publishes ACIP's recommendations for prevention and control of influenza

CDC published "Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 2007" in the July 13 MMWR Recommendations and Reports. Previously, the recommendations were available in electronic format as an MMWR Early Release.

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of the influenza recommendations, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5606.pdf

To access a web-text (HTML) version of them, go to:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5606a1.htm

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5 July issue of CDC's Immunization Works electronic newsletter now available online

The July issue of Immunization Works, a monthly email newsletter published by CDC, is available on the website of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). The newsletter offers members of the immunization community non-proprietary information about current topics. CDC encourages its wide dissemination.

Some of the information in the July issue has already appeared in previous issues of IAC Express. Following is the text of four articles we have not covered.


FRONT PAGE NEWS

NEW ACIP RECOMMENDATIONS: On June 27-28, 2007, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) met in Atlanta, GA. The ACIP meets three times annually and provides recommendations to the Director of the CDC and the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) concerning the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Following are summaries of key votes from the meeting:

Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
The ACIP voted to recommend that all persons 11 through 18 years-old should be vaccinated against meningococcal disease. This recommendation would replace the current ACIP recommendation for routine vaccination with MCV4 of children at 11 through 12 years of age, of adolescents before high school entry (approximately 15 years of age), and other people at increased risk (such as college freshmen living in dorms.) An estimated 1,400 to 2,800 cases of meningococcal disease occur in the United States annually; morbidity and mortality are high.

Hepatitis A Vaccine (for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis)
The ACIP voted to recommend the option of using hepatitis A vaccine instead of immune globulin (IG) after exposure to Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In deciding to use vaccine or IG, immunization providers should take into account patient characteristics associated with more severe manifestations of HAV, including older age and chronic liver disease. Also, the magnitude of the risk of HAV transmission from the exposure should be considered. Generally, hepatitis A vaccine is preferred for healthy persons 12 months to 40 years of age, and IG for persons 40 years of age and older. While rates of HAV have declined dramatically in the United States since 2000, the need for post-exposure prophylaxis remains.

Adult Immunization Schedule
The ACIP approved the new Adult Immunization Schedule (October 2007-September 2008) to ensure that the schedule reflects current recommendations for use of licensed vaccines in people 19 years of age and older. Changes include the addition of zoster vaccine to the schedule. ACIP annually reviews the recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, first approved in 2002. This schedule also will be approved by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the American College of Physicians (ACP). Approximately 43,000 adults in the United States die each year from vaccine-preventable diseases.

Slide presentations and the full report from the ACIP meeting will be posted soon at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/acip/default.htm The next ACIP meeting will be held at the CDC Global Communications Center in Atlanta, Georgia, on October 24-25, 2007.


MEETINGS, CONFERENCES & RESOURCES

UPCOMING IMMUNIZATION SATELLITE BROADCASTS: Please mark your calendars for several upcoming satellite broadcasts from the CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). These include Immunization Update 2007 (August 9, 2007) and Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (December 13, 2007). Also, the annual four-part series broadcast, Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, will occur on January 31, February 7, February 14, and February 21, 2008. As more information becomes available, it will be posted at http://www2.cdc.gov/phtn


REMINDER: TRAINING RESOURCES WEBSITE: To find out about current training opportunities for health professionals, visit the Education and Training section of CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases website. The website, which can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ed, offers information about satellite broadcasts, net conferences, webcasts, podcasts, and self-study courses. Course materials, including slide presentations, are provided. Many of these courses can be completed anytime, and most offer continuing education credit.


NCIRD STAFF AWARDS
NOTE: Leadership and staff from CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) have recently been recognized for their dedication, hard work and successes in reducing the impact of vaccine-preventable diseases. From this issue forward, on an occasional basis, this space will be used to recognize those individuals and programs that have been publicly recognized for their contributions.

CHARLES C. SHEPARD SCIENCE AWARDS: The annual Charles C. Shepard Sciences Award ceremony honors CDC/ATSDR scientists who have made important research contributions to public health. The awards are given in four categories (Assessment and Epidemiology, Laboratory and Methods, Prevention and Control, and Lifetime Scientific Achievement). On June 14, 2007, three of the four Shepard awards went to leaders in vaccine-preventable disease and immunization research. Roger I. Glass, MD, MPH, PhD, received the Lifetime Scientific Achievement award for his leadership and accomplishments in rotavirus and norovirus research. Dr. Glass retired from CDC in 2006 but continues his scientific work at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Mary A. Hoelscher, Sanjay Garg, Dinesh S. Bangari, Jessica A. Belser, Xiuhua Lu, Iain Stephenson, Rick A. Bright, Jacqueline M. Katz, Suresh K. Mittal, and Suryaprakash Sambhara, received the Shepard award in the Laboratory and Methods category for their manuscript Development of Adenoviral-Vector-Based Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Against Antigenically Distinct Human H5N1 Strains in Mice (The Lancet 2006;367:475-481). In addition, Cynthia G. Whitney, Tamar Pilishvili, Monica M. Farley, William Schaffner, Allen S. Craig, Ruth Lynfield, Ann-Christine Nyquist, Kenneth A. Gershman, Marietta Vazquez, Nancy M. Bennett, Arthur Reingold, Ann Thomas, Mary P. Glode, Elizabeth R. Zell, James H. Jorgensen, Bernard Beall, and Ann Schuchat received the Shepard award in the Prevention and Control category for their manuscript Effectiveness of Seven-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: A Matched Case-Control Study (The Lancet 2006;368:1495-1502).


APAOC AWARD GOES TO PAMELA CHING: Pamela Ching, RD/LD, MS, ScD, CAPT, USPHS, Senior Research Epidemiologist with CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) received the RADM Samuel Lin Award from the Asian Pacific American Officers Committee (APAOC) of the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). The award, announced at a USPHS Symposium held in Cincinnati, OH, in June, recognizes a senior USPHS officer for contributions to the advancement of the nation's health, outstanding leadership qualities, and dedication and involvement in professional/community organizations/activities.

Issues of Immunization Works are posted on CDC's Vaccines & Immunizations website a few days after publication. To access the July issue, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/news/newsltrs/imwrks Click on the link titled "Jul" under the banner titled "2007 Newsletters Available Online."

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6 New: Unofficial summary of June 27-28 ACIP meeting now posted on IAC website

IAC recently posted an unofficial summary of the most recent ACIP meeting, which was held June 27-28. To access it, go to: http://www.immunize.org/acip/ACIP_meeting_summary607.pdf

The PowerPoint presentations given at the meeting will be available on the ACIP website within the next several days, and the official meeting minutes will be posted on the ACIP website within 90 days of the meeting. IAC Express will notify readers when these documents become available.

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7 ACOG's Immunization Wheel offers professionals abundant information on immunizing adolescent and adult women

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently developed an Immunization Wheel intended to simplify the task of immunizing adolescent and adult women. The plastic coated, 8-1/2"-diameter wheel offers busy health professionals abundant information in a compact, easy-to-use format.

Information is presented on the following diseases and vaccines:

  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Influenza
  • Measles-mumps-rubella
  • Meningococcal conjugate
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide
  • Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis
  • Varicella

One side of the wheel succinctly describes who is at risk for these VPDs, general contraindications to vaccination, and general considerations for vaccination. The other side lists indications, contraindications, and dosages pertinent to the vaccines listed above and whether the vaccine can be administered during pregnancy. A chart of vaccine administration guidelines presents the following information on the vaccines: storage temperature, route of administration, site, needle length, and needle gauge.

To view the wheel and place an online order, go to:
http://www.acog.org/bookstore/Immunizations_Wheel_P566C60.cfm

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8 Newly launched: WHO/ICO Information Centre on Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

WHO and the Institut Catala d'Oncologia (ICO) recently launched the WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer. It is intended to accelerate the development and introduction of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in countries with the highest burden of cervical cancer and reduce the incidence of this disease and related lesions among women.

To learn more, go to: http://www.who.int/hpvcentre/en

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9 New: July 11 issue of IAC's Hep Express electronic newsletter now available online

The July 11 issue of Hep Express, an electronic newsletter published by IAC, is now available online. It is intended for health professionals, program planners, and advocates involved in prevention, screening, and treatment of viral hepatitis.

IAC Express has already covered some of the information presented in the July 11 Hep Express; titles of articles we have not yet covered follow.

  • New CDC report examines drug use and sexual behavior
  • Hepatitis B Foundation posts conference proceedings online
  • New issue of "Viral Hepatitis" available on VHPB [Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board] website

To access the July 11 issue, go to:
http://www.hepprograms.org/hepexpress/issue58.asp

To sign up for a free subscription to Hep Express, go to:
http://www.immunize.org/subscribe

To access previous issues of Hep Express, go to:
http://www.hepprograms.org/hepexpress

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10.  CDC reports on worldwide progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission during January 2006-May 2007

CDC published "Progress Toward Interruption of Wild Poliovirus Transmission--Worldwide, January 2006-May 2007" in the July 13 issue of MMWR. A portion of a summary made available to the press is reprinted below.


The transmission of wild poliovirus type 1--the most common type of poliovirus--has been substantially curtailed in the remaining endemic countries of Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Challenges to achieving polio eradication continue in these countries, including low coverage during supplementary immunization activities and routine services in Nigeria, intense virus circulation in some districts in northern India, and accessing children in insecure areas of Afghanistan-Pakistan border areas. Strategies are being implemented to address each of these challenges. With collective global will and sustained political commitment from the highest levels, the world has the opportunity to reach the goal of global polio eradication.


To access a web-text (HTML) version of the complete article, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5627a3.htm

To access a ready-to-print (PDF) version of this issue of MMWR, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5627.pdf

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This website is supported in part by a cooperative agreement from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (Grant No. 5U38IP000290) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. The website content is the sole responsibility of IAC and does not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.